Abstract-These instructions give you basic guidelines for fixing camera-ready documents to be included in ICT4MA 2009 conference proceeding.

Keywords-Battery ; Electric Machine ; Power


Presents, consumers demand more from their advanced engineering. The latest engineerings purchased such as telecasting, cellular phone or icebox must hold their ain characteristics. The most-wanted characteristic is faster entree to information with the aid of the Internet. Many cellular endorsers are willing to pay excess on top of their basic measures for such characteristics as instant messaging and Internet entree is available on their phones. However, that is far from the bound of the characteristics. Most of the clip, makers encourage clients to buy new phones with exposure and picture capableness. There is no manner that we manage to entree to all necessary information with merely a “ personal computing machine ” in the thenar of one ‘s manus. Therefore, we require a high-velocity radio connectivity in order to back up such a powerful system.

There are a batch of engineerings presently exist to supply clients with high-velocity digital radio connectivity such as Bluetooth. It provides really high velocity web connexions for short distances. Besides, cellular suppliers seek to increase velocity on their long-range radio webs. As a consequence, 4G for fourth-generation radio system has been introduced with characteristics of long-range and high-velocity radio.

History of Wireless Security

The original cellular phone web in United States was called the Analog Mobile Phone System ( AMPS ) . It was developed by AT & A ; T and launched in1983. AMPS operated in the 800MHz scope, from 824-849 MHz and 869-894 MHz. Harmonizing to Leon-Garcia and Widjaja, the lower set was used for transmittals from the phone to the base station and the upper set was for the rearward way. This allows full duplex conversation, which is suited for voice communications. The sets were divided into 832 sub channels and each connexion required a brace where one each for directing and having informations. Each bomber channel was 30 KHz broad, which yielded voice quality comparable to wired telephones. The intent to put up the bomber channels is to guarantee every bomber channel brace was precisely 45 MHz apart. Besides, several of the channels were reserved entirely for connexion apparatus and teardown. The base station in a peculiar cell kept a record of which voice bomber channel braces were in usage.

Harmonizing to Riezenman, this system included a figure of security defects. The phones in this system were comically vulnerable to security onslaughts since each phone transmitted in the clear on its ain frequence. The offense of service larceny plagued cellular service suppliers and with wireless scanners could steal the cellular frequences and acquire the phone designation Numberss which is a must to clone or double a phone. Then, the maltreater could utilize this cloned phone to do free telephone calls that would be charged to the legitimate user ‘s history. In order to avoid these onslaughts happened, the service supplier worked really hard with Congress to penalize such maltreatment. Congress passed a jurisprudence in 1998 to do having a cellular scanner with purpose to victimize a federal offense. However, this punitory statute law was unable to work out the job. A new criterion was required. All applied scientists required to get down a new and analyzing each portion of the current system in order to make a new criterion.

Stakeholders in Wireless Security

In order to avoid security jobs like those that plagued the first-generation cellular systems, all applied scientists must plan security into any new engineering where it can non be added as an reconsideration. However, this is non a easy undertaking. Implementing a good security requires that the security has to be designed into every facet of the system. Otherwise, there might hold a security leak. Therefore, the following entities have to collaborate to make and organize the secure wiles system:

Government regulator

Network substructure supplier

Wireless service supplier

Wireless equipment supplier

Wireless user

Information Security Model

Before we are happening a manner to plan and implement wireless security, we have to cognize and understand what the significance of construct of security is. In this instance, wireless security is a combination of wireless channel security and web security. Wireless channel security is a security of the wireless transmittal and web security is security of the wired web through which the information flows. Harmonizing to [ 3 ] , these jointly can be referred to as wireless web security. However, this still does non explicate the security facet. In a digital universe, security is ever means Information security. Therefore, we can utilize the information security theoretical account, which is proposed by the National security Telecommunications and Information Systems security Committee ( NSTISSC ) , as seen in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Information Security Model

There are three provinces information can be in along the top border of the regular hexahedron. Besides, the information features that the security policy should supply are located at the rows on the left side of the regular hexahedron. The three wide classs of security steps that can be pursued to protect the information is in the columns on the right side of the regular hexahedron. As a consequence, the regular hexahedron is divided into 27 smaller regular hexahedron. Each smaller regular hexahedron must be examined for hazards and solutions in any security audit. This shows the major issues of wireless security, the aims of future radio engineering and the security steps needed to make those ends.

Wireless Security Issues

In wireless systems, it face a batch of security challenges

and jobs. One of them is intervention. The possibility of intervention additions when more wireless devices start to utilize the same subdivision of electromagnetic spectrum. As a consequence, it can do in a loss of signal for users. Furthermore, an maltreater can deliberately to do heavy handiness by thronging the frequences used.

Besides that, physical security can do jobs every bit good. Thiefs can easy hide the cellular phones and other hand-held devices. It is because those devices are designed to be little and nomadic. As a consequence, they are more likely than other pieces of engineering to acquire lost or stolen. Furthermore, they have highly limited calculating power because of their size. Harmonizing to [ 4 ] , this could attest itself in lower degrees in the encoding that protects the information. Therefore, harmonizing to [ 3 ] , the velocity is accordingly lowered as is available bandwidth when encoding is improved in the same device.

Other package issues besides play an of import function in security issues. For illustration, many handheld wireless devices are able to download and run plans. But, some of them may non be useable. The nucleus operating system package may non be secure as good. Therefore, many applied scientists have been working difficult to let go of it in order to offer new characteristics in the competitory handheld device market. However, lack consciousness among users in any of these security issues may be happened in the wireless handheld device has become the most detrimental for the systems.

In fact, these security issues that have mentioned supra have served as a reminder that planing for security is non the last and concluding procedure. Every new engineering must be carefully analyzed for security issues before it is to the full implemented. However, any new issues may be developed and we have to maintain it a careful.

Security Analysis

E.1. Aims

Analyzing cellular wireless security is the first measure to place the security aims. The undermentioned ends are security policy and matching engineering that should be achieved. The aims that are created by Howard, Walker, and Wright of the British company Vodafone for 3G are applicable to 4G excessively.

To guarantee that information generated by a user is protected against abuse.

To guarantee that resources and services provided to users are protected against abuse.

To guarantee that the security characteristics are compatible with globe handiness.

To guarantee that the security characteristics are standardized to guarantee global interoperability between different suppliers.

To guarantee that the degree of protection afforded to users and suppliers of services is considered to be better than that provided in nomadic webs.

To guarantee that the execution of security characteristics can be extended as required by new menaces and services.

To guarantee that security features enable new e-commerce services and other advanced applications [ 5 ]

When the system is confronting with specific menaces, these

ends will assist to direct security attempts.

E.2. Menaces

It is really hard to cognize what security menaces may be existed in the hereafter. It is because cases of 4G wireless systems presently merely exist in a few research labs. But, we can observe it based on past experience in wired web engineering and wireless transmittal. For illustration, new beds of technological abstraction will be added when nomadic handheld devices become more complex. Therefore, package at a higher bed may present exposures or vice-versa when lower beds might be unafraid. Future cellular radio devices will be known for their package applications. It is able to supply advanced new characteristics to the user. However, harmonizing to [ 5 ] , these application will probably give opportunity and present new security job and as a consequence to more onslaughts on the application degree. Therefore, many onslaughts occur in the hereafter may take advantage of popular applications on cellular phones. In fact, the greatest hazard comes from the application bed. It can be either from defective applications themselves or viruses downloaded from the web.

E.3. Security Architecture

The above subjects fundamentally mentioned a brief overview of some issues involved in wireless hand-held device security. Therefore, there is no significance to depict complete security solution for 4G wireless security. However, those subjects describe and focus to the security jobs that presently exist or may be in future radio systems. In fact, before a 4G radio system can be implemented, a complete security analysis is needed. This should take to a 4G security architecture that is:


The architecture should turn to all menaces to security aims. However, it is hard to avoid losing some characteristics when there are so many independent parts of the 4G system.


We have to minimise the security functionality duplicate. However, it is hard to avoid losing some characteristics when there are so many independent parts of the 4G system.


Security characteristics should accomplish their intent. However, some security characteristics may hold security issues.


Security should be upgraded in a systematic manner.


End user should hold to larn about security. Harmonizing to [ 5 ] , when interaction must be involved, it should be easy to understand the security since the security is crystalline to the usage.

These aims were taken into consideration when the current coevals of cellular engineering was designed.


Consumers have a high outlook on the package and hardware to be user-friendly and execute good. However, some other consumers would anticipate the highest quality and the greatest characteristics from what they have purchased.

Besides, there is a great competition in the cellular telephone industry. Therefore, many suppliers are seeking to set up monetary values in order to supply the latest characteristics to consumers. As a consequence, this will harm the consumers in a confusing market.

In fact, consumers want the simple and straightforward characteristics to them. Many wireless suppliers want to do money in this industry. In order to work out the job, US authorities has to implement 4G as the following wireless criterion. The package and transmittal hardware are widely been used. We have to guarantee the security patterns can do all plants safely.