The World Trade Organization ( WTO ) represents one of the largest international institutes modulating foreign trade activities in general and its trading sector in peculiar. The large authorization and popularity of the WTO in universe economic community are connected, foremost of all, with practical benefit from engagement in activities of this international organisation. This benefit is reached because the overpowering bulk of the member-countries of the WTO are provided for themselves and their spouses with favourable conditions on creative activity of trade and other activities on immense countries.
The debut of Russia into the World Trade Organization means formal remotion of barriers on the manner of the Russian goods to the universe markets with coincident counter gap of domestic market for foreign makers. However, the economic discovery on the universe markets is critical for the Russian economic system.
It is supposed, on the one manus, that fall ining will advance betterment of market mechanisms, free competition of the goods and services in the Russian economic system and, as effect, will make necessary conditions for intensive growing of labour productiveness. Thereby there will be an impulse in work outing of many jobs, like re-structuring of the industry and technological development.
At the same clip, for a considerable portion of the Russian endeavors and companies which are bring forthing noncompetitive goods, the debut of the state into the WTO means inevitableness of a pick: either modernisation of production lines or kerb of production. If the endeavor wants to last in such conditions, it is obliged to larn how to bring forth competitory goods. Russian economic system needs clip, desire, ability to better, and besides, for a certain passage period, province steps of protection of place market and those makers who are n’t prepared for such modernisation.
That ‘s why, I will seek to analyse the cardinal benefits and disadvantages of the Russian engagement in the WTO. We should happen out, what jobs Russian endeavors will confront, what difficulties they should anticipate in instance of Russia ‘s accession to the World Trade Organization, because this accession will hold great impact non merely within the Russian Federation, but besides around the universe.
WTO & A ; RUSSIA: GOALS, BENEFITS, DISADVANTAGES.
THE MAIN GOALS, PRINCIPLES AND FUNCTIONS
OF THE WTO
I don`t want to reexamine the history or construction of the WTO in this assignment, because we reviewed these facets during the faculty and because I want to analyse cardinal benefits and cardinal disadvantages of the Russian accession to this organisation. So, at first, I will reexamine the chief ends, rules and maps of the WTO as the chief international economic organisation. From my point of position, it is really of import and critical to cognize these ends, rules and maps, because it is a footing for the apprehension of the job.
The chief rule of the WTO is the desire of member states to develop international trade and supply economic development through common liberalisation of market entree, predictable conditions for concern activities in foreign markets and regulative actions of authoritiess to modulate foreign economic domain. Consequently, I can place the chief ends of the WTO:
The growing of trade exchange of goods and services ;
Decrease of duty and non-tariff barriers in universe trade ( the usage of duty protection of the national markets, instead than quantitative limitations or similar steps ) ;
Activities on the footing of the “ most favorite ” rule, i.e. , trade without favoritism, which is reached by, on the one manus, MFN rule for export, import and theodolite operations and related imposts responsibilities and charges, and by “ national intervention ” rule, i.e. , equal intervention of imported and domestic goods in regard of internal revenue enhancements and charges, every bit good as regulations regulating domestic trading ;
Progressive decrease of imposts duties during unit of ammunitions of many-sided trade dialogues and their binding to lawfully formalise the in agreement degree ;
Transparency of trade policies ;
Deciding of trade differences through audiences and dialogues, and in neglecting to decide a difference – through turn toing differences in specially created organic structures, etc.
The most of import maps of the WTO are the undermentioned: monitoring of execution of understandings and agreements ; carry oning of many-sided trade dialogues and audiences between the Members of WTO, deciding of trade differences ; monitoring of national trade policies of member states, proficient aid for developing states on affairs associating to the competency of the WTO, cooperation with other international organisations, etc. ( 1 )
Harmonizing to the above-named, I can specify the undermentioned general advantages from WTO rank on the footing of bing maps and ends:
1. Creation of better entree to universe markets for goods and services on the footing of predictability and stableness in development of trade dealingss with WTO member states ;
2. Entree to the mechanism of the WTO for difference colony, which ensures the protection of national involvements, if they are infringed by other members, and therefore the riddance of favoritism ;
3. Ability for execution of current and strategic trade and economic involvements through effectual engagement in international trade dialogues in the procedure of creative activity of new regulations for international trade.
ACCESSION OF RUSSIA TO THE WTO
Since the early 1990 ‘s after the prostration of the Soviet Union ‘s Russia have conducted important alterations and reforms in its economic system. So, the following measure of the Russian reforms should go inclusion of domestic goods and services in the procedure international trade on equal footings. Achieving of this end can be reached by the accession of Russia to the World Trade Organization.
However, there are sentiments refering this measure is really complex, because this procedure of Russian accession to the WTO has been enduring for 20 old ages ( 2 ) in the modern Russian history. But, the protagonists of rank of Russia Federation in the WTO see that such measure will be an of import stimulation for encouragement of economic development and for farther strengthening of the reform procedure in the state. At the same clip there is besides other point of position, harmonizing to which, Russia should non bind its custodies in the procedure of conductivity of economic policy with any duties under the WTO, at least, before making the phase of sustainable economic growing. But, talking for or against the accession of Russia to the WTO, you must hold a clear thought, whether or non you will hold the positive balance between benefits and duties of such rank.
World Trade Organization members are already 153 ( 3 ) states of the universe and in the coming old ages this figure will increase. This means that virtually every province that want to make a modern, efficient economic system and equal engagement in universe trade, aims to go a WTO member. Russia, in this sense is non an exclusion.
The most of import ground, that prompted Russia to submit to the WTO, is its desire to go, eventually, an equal trading spouse in the planetary market. That, improbably complicated and cumbrous system of bilateral understandings, which was created by the Soviet Union, is non ever able to protect the economic involvements of Russia in the current context of increased internationalisation of economic ties and mutuality of national economic systems.
It is well-known, that engagement in the WTO gives its member a batch of advantages. Receipt of these advantages is the chief end of accession to the WTO in the matter-of-fact sense. The specific ends for Russia within WTO are the undermentioned:
Geting the best in comparing with bing and non-discriminatory conditions for entree of Russian merchandises and services to foreign markets ;
Access to an international mechanism for deciding trade differences ;
Making a more favourable clime for foreign investing as a consequence of conveying the legal in conformity with WTO ordinances ;
Increasing of chances for Russian investors in the WTO member-countries, peculiarly, in the banking sector ;
Making conditions for bettering the quality and fight of domestic merchandises as a consequence of the increased flow of foreign goods, services and investings to the Russian market ;
Engagement in the development of international trade regulations in conformity with national involvements ;
Bettering of the image of Russia in the universe as a full participant in international trade.
However, taking into history these ends, our authorities should non bury that Russia ‘s WTO accession will be a first measure to an active development of the domestic market by foreign companies. Many multinationals will come to the Russian market and enhance competition in all sectors of the economic system, which will significantly increase marketing passing to keep market place. In this respect, there will be a important autumn in profitableness of domestic endeavors and evidently this autumn will cut down their fight. This applies peculiarly to nutrient, pharmaceutical, chemical, car and aircraft fabrication, consumer goods and electronics industry, insurance sector, fiscal services, little and average concerns. We have many multinationals in Russia now, but the regulations of the “ game ” will be different and it will be hard to back up these sectors of economic system after accession to the WTO.
Experience of the Baltic and Eastern European ( 4 ) states showed that the meeting of national and international markets is a loss of national control over whole sectors of the economic system. A similar menace exists for Russia from WTO accession. Primarily it will impact on the agricultural sector. As we know the degree of province supports for the agricultural sector, for illustration, in Canada, in the U.S. and in the EU ( 5 ) and is really important. And under the footings of accession to the WTO, Russia must cut down province support of agricultural sector.
The similar state of affairs will be in other subdivisions of economic system chiefly because of lessening in the export responsibilities which will ease entree for import of goods to the domestic market.
Significantly, may be affected the fiscal services sector, because the WTO requires equal entree of private capital to the markets in order to increase international competition in this country. ( 6 ) This will do serious jobs of endurance, for illustration, for Russian Bankss and insurance companies. The gap of subdivisions of foreign fiscal and insurance companies will give Russian citizens and companies the chance to utilize cheaper loans and better services. Today, hence, domestic endeavors should fix and beef up their concerns to vie with international concern and keep control over national economic systems.
Let`s see on what Russian domestic companies and foreign companies today are based. Domestic companies ‘ strengths include:
1. Administrative resource. Russian domestic corporations ( GazProm, RusAl, Nornikel, Lukoil, etc. ) have immense administrative resource in the state.
2. Cheap labour. The degree of rewards in Russia is really low. So, in this facet we can wager merely China and 3rd universe states.
3. Cheap energy resources. Such a rich resource base, no state in the universe has.
4. Cheap scientific experts, who we inherited from the Soviet Union.
5. Soft environmental demands.
The advantages of foreign companies:
Extensive direction experience. European and American enterprisers have several hundred old ages of life under capitalist economy. They accumulate experience and so develop production and direction engineerings. In Russia, nevertheless, it is non a tradition of utilizing ready-made direction determinations, so most companies are making their ain direction systems.
The application of modern production and direction engineerings. Excellence in productiveness.
Use of the latest engineerings leads to the high quality of American companies over Russian in labour productiveness.
The presence of longer and inexpensive fiscal resources.
The chief ground of the high quality of the developed foreign companies is the usage of modern production and direction engineerings. It is hence necessary to see the possibility of extinguishing the backlog of domestic endeavors in this country. The debut of modern production engineerings requires big and extra investings. But the bulk of Russian endeavors is opaque and inefficient, and hence has small opportunity of obtaining investing financess, because they do non vouch their refund. ( 7 ) Therefore, it is necessary to do concern endeavors transparent and more efficient to obtain investings for modernisation of production. This can be achieved by implementing in the companies modern direction techniques, which are less expensive and can supply positive economic consequence than the production engineerings, because these modern direction engineerings can supply a more rational usage of fiscal and human resources. Therefore, Russian companies will be significantly closer to the public presentation of foreign companies and will better their opportunities of success after coming to our market foreign endeavors by using these modern direction engineerings in pattern.
After Russia ‘s accession to the WTO administrative resources will be depreciated, because international investors will set force per unit area on Russian Government and coerce it to guarantee their safety, because today, authorities organic structures are uneffective to protect the involvements of investors. When the caput of province wants to pull investing, he will be forced to contend corruptness. This will imply devaluation of administrative resources, and concerns based on the administrative resource, will weaken. So, Russian companies will hold to larn how to vie in such conditions.
The labour force will lift in monetary value, because non-residents will be offered higher wages and the best specializers will travel to them. And Russian companies will be forced to pay more is less than competent professionals. In add-on, the coming rise in monetary values of energy resources. ( 8 ) This is a status of accession to the WTO. There is no money for scientific discipline in Russia, because we have non learned how to gain it. That ‘s why foreign companies will offer support for our scientific discipline. Environmental demands will be stickler because the statute law of the Russian Federation will be bit by bit brought into line with international criterions. In other words, our strengths will be leveled and the advantages of foreign companies will be a critical success factor for new international Russian market. Foreign companies will travel their production lines to Russia, they will convey the latest engineerings and will utilize our inexpensive labour and energy resources. This will give them an chance to acquire a immense competitory advantage. And the presence of inexpensive fiscal resources will enable them to rapidly spread out their concerns.
Another advantage of Russia ‘s accession to WTO is an debut to the Russian statute law stable, predictable regulations of the “ game ” for economic operators, which are used by its members. The extension of these regulations to Russia would non merely better its foreign investing attractive force, but besides make it more predictable and clear economic and legal environment for their ain concerns. Companies engaged in planetary trade know that in any of the WTO member state, they can trust on common attacks for the usage of duties and other instruments of foreign economic activity, which significantly increases the efficiency of the commercial solutions.
Nowadays, we significantly lag behind foreign companies in the development of direction engineerings and can non vie with them. But today, Russian companies have the clip to use the progresss in the scientific discipline of direction, constructing direction systems that allow them to catch up with foreign companies in footings of engineering and after the accession to the WTO to vie with them in the domain of direction.
However, it should be noted that there are obvious benefits of free trade for consumers like the benefit of lowering of life cost by cut downing protectionist trade barriers. In more than 50 old ages of its being WTO held many unit of ammunitions of dialogues, and now merchandise barriers around the universe are lower than they were of all time in the history of modern trade. ( 9 ) Not merely ready-made imported goods and services will be cheaper but besides domestic merchandises, which are used in the production of imported constituents, as a consequence of the barriers take downing. It is impossible to do a clear differentiation between the effects of free trade on consumers, manufacturers and the province. Therefore, the lowering of trade barriers promotes the growing of trade, which leads to an addition in both public and personal income. Empirical grounds: as a consequence of Uruguay Round the gross of new planetary system of commercial minutess grew from 109 to 510 billion dollars. The united market within the European Union besides contributed to the addition of society ‘s income and wealth.
The addition of authorities gross through the activities of successful exporters can redistribute received extra resources and assist other companies confronting foreign competition to increase productiveness, expand production, better their fight or exchange to new activities. This fact gives us hope, that Russia will acquire more benefits from WTO accession, than loses.
But, Russia is presently isolated from engagement in the development of new international trade regulations. ( 10 ) Our economic involvements are non counted in this procedure. The consequence of trade regulations development can be different, even endangering the strategic involvements of the state ( with regard to those new WTO issues such as trade and environment ( environmental dumping ) , trade and societal issues ( societal dumping ) , particular regulations for energy trade.
Russia ‘s engagement in the WTO will assist beef uping dealingss within the CIS on the footing of free trade understandings and, in some instances, the Customs Union.
It is frequently said that Russia ‘s losingss from the accession will besides be big plenty. For illustration, critics point out that the WTO will significantly restrict chances for Russia in transporting out foreign policy and the usage of different direction tools.
Indeed, we must see the limited manoeuvrability in the execution of our trade policy, nevertheless, such a limitation would non be well greater than it is now: Soviet union is a party to several hundred international bilateral and many-sided pacts, which – by virtuousness of commissariats of the Constitution – return precedency over domestic jurisprudence. In other words, we have been linked with the decision-making for a long clip. Most of the standard WTO committednesss ( such as most-favored-importing, non-discrimination between domestic and imported goods ) have long been a portion of our legal system.
Other critics referred to the fact that Russia, following the accession will be forced to abandon the protection of the domestic market, which will take in bend to the shutting of cardinal industries.
These premises are far from world. WTO member has the right to protect the market against unjust competition, including the usage of selective, point tools such as anti-dumping instrument. Russia will besides hold the possibility of their usage after the accession. On the other manus, so, Russia in the accession procedure will hold the committedness to curtail the ability to increase import duties or barriers for foreign services or providers.
There many benefits and disadvantages of the accession to the WTO, but it is critical for Russia to be the member of the WTO in order to protect its economic and political involvements globally.
It is obvious that Russia will hold equal intervention like other member-countries of the WTO. As a consequence Russia can utilize invariably diminishing duties, in order to spread out to the foreign markets. The domestic production wo n’t be under favoritism steps. Russia can protect the commercial Torahs from unlawful actions of other states under the auspices of process of difference declarations of the WTO. Harmonizing to the Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations, Russia is on the 2nd topographic point in the universe after China in footings of favoritism.
The debut into the World Trade Organization will assist to develop the mechanism of the admittance of the foreign capital to the Russian fiscal sector of. The function of a stimulating and bettering international competition for the Russian maker will be raised. WTO rank will let having imposts privileges, will ease entree to credits, will affect investors, response of high engineerings.
On the other manus, holding entered the World Trade Organization, Russia well should liberalise, foremost, the foreign trade theoretical account, recognizing rules of free trade with WTO member states. It can negatively impact its ain industry, sabotaging it and so low fight. Russia becomes even more dependent on the import groceries. Even between industrially developed states there are contradictions refering common bringings of agricultural production. Without addition of import responsibilities will coerce out import from the Russian nutrient market really hard.
Accession to WTO can take to decease of adequate competitory Fe and steel industry of Russia owing to diminish. The flow of inexpensive import will take to shutting of some industries and to unemployment addition.
I have analyzed cardinal benefits and disadvantages of the Russian accession to the WTO in this assignment and from my point of position, Russia, as an of import participant in many universe trade markets and strongly adequate depend on universe conjuncture ca n’t stand aside from the WTO. Russian must in the WTO to advance planetary economic development and wealth.