In Miss Julie, Julie ‘s Canis familiaris, Diana, serves as an incarnation of Julie ‘s destiny. Diana gets into an matter with a pug of lower standing, the “ gatekeeper ‘s pug ” . Through the usage of antitheses- purebred bitch and gatekeeper ‘s pug it foreshadows the future dualism- blue blood and common man where Julie transcends her societal boundary by holding a sexual matter with Jean. This correspondence follows that merely as Diana faces terrible effects for her actions “ that Miss Julie wo n’t let ”[ 2 ], Julie ‘s sexual folly has dire effects. Julie in demanding Christine prepares “ some foul sludge ”[ 3 ]for an immediate abortion conjures thoughts of decease, expiration and obliteration engendering in readers an baleful, revelatory temper which foreshadows Julie ‘s expiration of her ain life. Coupled with the animal battle with the usage of an olfactive imagination in “ the [ abortion potion ] odor ‘s infernal ”[ 4 ], it has overtones of demonic penalty making an image of snake pit, raising in audience the wroth penalty for follies such as these, rising the premonition sinister skyline in front.
After Julie ‘s sexual folly subsequently on in the drama, audiences are one time once more reminded “ She, who all but had hapless Diana shooting for running after the gatekeeper ‘s pug! ”[ 5 ], arousing heightened apprehensiveness of Julie ‘s penalty as has been prescribed to Diana. Miss Julie so “ enters in going apparels with a little birdcage. ”[ 6 ]By prosecuting audience with a ocular image, it explicitly shows Julie is trapped merely like the bird in a little birdcage. The bird ‘s parturiency in this bantam coop is symbolic of Miss Julie being trapped by the effects of her action for which there is no shriving. This parallels Julie ‘s torment at acknowledging her actions are inexcusable and would non be pardoned.
Finally, Jean snatches the bird from Julie, “ takes it to the chopping block and picks up the kitchen axe ”[ 7 ]. This act of snaping the bird from Julie is symbolic of Jean taking control of Julie and Julie losing control over her ain being. The violent death of the greenfinch foreshadows Julie ‘s eventual self-destruction. Like the Finch who dies at the custodies of Jean, Julie ‘s eventual self-destruction decease is dictated by Jean and is symbolic of patriarchal society. Predating this, originating from her nobility, Julie asserts laterality over Jean who belongs to the working-class. Contrastingly, this really act of snaping the bird and Jean “ conveying down the axe ” signifies the reversal of functions on evidences of the more dominant sex regardless of economic place.[ 8 ]Jean ‘s act, true to societal Darwinism, clearly show that it is the male that defines the female, it is he on whom she will hinge her being into, her being is mostly defined by how he allows [ or non ] it to be.[ 9 ]Like the Greenfinch, Julie succumbs to her ain ruin, correspondent to female esthesia yielding to the male, phallic, patriarchal order, reaffirming adult male ‘s control over human personal businesss.[ 10 ]
Similarly, like the decease of the greenfinch which can non last exterior, and who is saved through Jean ‘s ferociousness, Julie ‘s decease is an flight. Julie ‘s eventual self-destruction dictated by Jean is the fulfilment of the sado-masochistic rite where the victim desires her fatal terminal, the consummation of her masochistic phantasy.[ 11 ]
The construct of societal Darwinism, ensuing in the Naturalist motion from which Miss Julie arose, is besides reflected in this important act of Jean “ conveying down the axe ” , viciously choping the caput from Julie ‘s chittering greenfinch.[ 12 ]Like Darwinian missing link, this act of maleness at its basest, leads to Jean being winning by obeying his animal inherent aptitudes.[ 13 ]Given that Julie ‘s continued presence is a menace to his security, Jean has to desperately dispose of her.[ 14 ]As such, this symbolic act of ferociousness is apparent of his robust inherent aptitude for endurance which consequences in the endurance of the fittest with the eventual remotion of Julie as an hindrance.
In kernel, the Greenfinch efficaciously conveys thoughts of societal and gender Darwinism exemplified in the act which could non be replicated on Julie herself given the extent of the ferociousness and Gore which embodies for Stindberg his phantasy of the strong male sadist with robust inherent aptitude for endurance.[ 15 ]
Similarly, in The House of Bernarda Alba, animate beings are used to stand for characters. The entire, representative of Pepe establishes the sexual tensenesss from which the drama develops and like Diana in Miss Julie foreshadows the apogee of the drama in a tragic stoping. The thought of being “ locked in ”[ 16 ]analogues Pepe ‘s parturiency and emphasizes how greatly restrained he is. Equally much as the entire is seeking to interrupt free from his physical parturiency, Pepe wishes to alleviate his sexual tensenesss which have been suppressed. This is farther evident in “ He [ entire ] must be hot ” .[ 17 ]While the “ heat ” could be associated with the physical uncomfortableness, malaise that summer brings, the “ heat ” figuratively represents heightened sexual desires. As summer is the clip of the twelvemonth characterized by birthrate, luxuriance and productiveness, the repeating thought of summer heat is associated with sexual birthrate, fecundity and conjures thoughts of intense repressed sexual desires ensuing in edginess. Therefore, the impression of Pepe ‘s pent-up inherent aptitude urgently seeking to interrupt out is more strongly conveyed than if explicitly presented through Pepe ‘s onstage character which would be inappropriate and is an baleful arrow to the sexual brush between Pepe & A ; Adela.[ 18 ]In my sentiment, although Pepe is non physically locked up like the entire, possibly, Lorca was proposing a nonliteral stalls, that of Bernarda ‘s tight control over Adela which presents an hindrance to carry throughing his desires.
The at hand sexual brush is efficaciously foreshadowed when Bernarda orders “ Let him [ entire ] axial rotation out in the straw. ”[ 19 ]With the constitution of the entire stand foring Pepe, the releasing of the suppressed entire Markss Pepe ‘s liberalisation to seek and carry through his sexual desires which he finally does. However, the purpose of Bernarda- “ Lock the female horses in the stable but let him free, before he brings the walls on top of us ”[ 20 ], is dry for what is true of the entire will turn out to be true of Pepe el Romano who will finally convey down the walls upon the full family causation heartache, anguish, upset and finally Adela ‘s self-destruction.[ 21 ]This re-establishes the parturiency of Bernarda ‘s girls represented by the lockup of the female horses and is brooding of the credence of the sexual surpluss of work forces, for whom the experience of pre- and post-marital sex was simply a mark of their manfulness or “ machismo ” .[ 22 ]Through this, Lorca includes Naturalist elements rooted in tradition, where such attitudes deny the possibility of traveling towards sexual equality.[ 23 ]
Another facet of animate beings used in The House of Bernarda Alba serves to stress the unnatural order of things in Bernarda ‘s family which foreshadows the tragic stoping. Through the expressed onstage presence of Maria Josefa looking with a lamb in her weaponries,[ 24 ]coupled with the scriptural allusions to Bentlehem and the birth of Christ in her vocal, it epitomizes the bond of love, the integrity between female parent and kid. This maternal fondness is accentuated with the pastoral line “ Small lamb, my babe ” .[ 25 ]Contrastingly, Bernarda is referred to as “ leopard face ”[ 26 ]with intensions of fierce, predatory, meat-eating, and carnivorous. This diametrically contrasting bond of love between female parent and kid where Maria Josefa sees in her ain girl merely the savagenesss of wild animate beings[ 27 ], indicate the subverted, unnatural order where Bernarda controls non merely her girls, but her ain female parent. Through this, it foreshadows the consequences of the unnatural order of things where Maria Josefa together with the small lamb symbolic of her grandchildren who are stifled, travel to the sea shore, to flowers at Bethlehem ‘s Gatess.[ 28 ]Here, the evocation of the coast suggests a yearning for freedom and flight.[ 29 ]Given the context which the drama was written, 1930, a clip marked by turning Fascist subjugation, Lorca is perchance satirising the Fascist authorities represented by Bernarda, exposing the ailments of the Spain of his clip.[ 30 ]
In decision, animate beings have been adopted by both Strindberg and Lorca to parallel characters and bode the at hand hereafter. While both have used animate beings to parallel characters and convey thoughts dramatically which would otherwise be inappropriate with expressed representation on persons, Strindberg employed animate beings to parallel character ‘s state of affairss, Diana and Greenfinch as incarnation of Julie ‘s destiny while Lorca extends the usage of animate beings to parallel character ‘s interior feelings of repression as good.
In the eyetooth subplot, Julie ‘s pedigree bitch consorts with the gatekeeper ‘s bastard ( “ managed to steal out with the gatekeeper ‘s pug ”[ 31 ]) , and Christine, Julie ‘s retainer was ordered to fix “ some foul much for Diana ”[ 32 ]. Through this realistic drama, Strindberg places new accent on physical worlds. Julie ‘s physical status is similar to that of her favored Canis familiaris. Christine tells Jean that Julie ‘s clip of the month is doing her strange. Therefore, through the usage of her pet Canis familiaris which is in heat, it attributes the ground for Julie ‘s irrational behavior- consorting with the human bastards to that of a physical status. As such, through the usage of the Canis familiaris, it reflects Julie ‘s physical status and creates naturalism in the drama.
Of great significance would be Diana functioning as Julie ‘s dual by acquiring into an matter with a pug of lower standing- “ gatekeeper ‘s pug ” . Just like how Diana gets into an matter with a pug of lower standing, Miss Julie transcends her societal boundary by holding a sexual matter with Jean. Therefore, through the usage of antitheses- purebred bitch and gatekeeper ‘s pug it foreshadows the future dualism- aristocracy and common man. Like The House of Bernada Alba, through this, it induces in audience ‘s head a sexual sexual intercourse without expressed representation onstage which would be abhorrent. Furthermore, this correspondence follows that merely as Diana faces terrible effects for her actions- “ She, who all but had hapless Diana shooting for running after the gatekeeper ‘s pug! ”[ 33 ], Julie ‘s sexual folly has dire effects. This creates suspense whilst boding Julie ‘s aborting of her ain life- self-destruction merely as the gatekeeper had to abort. Abortion conveys an thought of decease, expiration, which foreshadows Julie ‘s expiration ( abortion ) of her ain life.