Border Crossings In War English Literature Essay

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There is a flooring phenomenon in our universe. It is that in war there are no boundaries to be respected. In history it becomes clear that war does non see sex, age, clip, topographic point or any relationships. There are many literary plants holding their focal point on war, conflicts, combats. There are some which trade with how far war can travel, what boundaries it can traverse. This essay is traveling to be based on a short narrative in which the crossed boundary line is nil but a really close relationship, viz. brotherhood.

I am traveling to compose and lucubrate on the subject of how war crosses and ruins household relationships, what makes people become enemies, what makes war go on, how humankind trades with it and how does it look in literature. Therefore, the primary beginning I use is Liam O’Flaherty ‘s short narrative, The Sniper.

First, I am traveling to compose a few words about the historical and the author ‘s personal background. Then the chief portion will be about the boundary line crossings that can happen in war and there is besides traveling to be a short subdivision on the psychological science of soldiers.

2. Historical and personal background

The Sniper takes topographic point in Dublin, after the Irish Free State was established in 1922. After all, the understanding with the British – the Anglo-Irish Treaty ( 1921 ) – divided the state non merely in a physical sense, but besides the people themselves. “ Once-united Irish combatants were now split into two cabals -disgruntled IRA members and protagonists of the Free State – and contend a civil war. “ – as Cummings writes in his survey.

O’flaherty himself experienced war personally. He was a soldier in the First World War, he fought in France and Belgium, he was wounded. He had all the feelings a soldier can hold, he saw the ferociousness of war. Peter Costello writes that when in 1921 he returned to Ireland he founded the Communist Party of Ireland, and he became a member of IRA. He was contending in the civil war that broke out after the pact with the English. As being portion of conflicts and combats, O’Flaherty gave, in some of his plants, a really realistic position of war.

Harmonizing to Cummings ‘ survey about The Sniper, there are two basic subjects that can be grabbed in The Sniper about war. One of them is that “ war reduces human existences to mere objects. They have no names, no faces. They are marks, nil more, to be shot at from a distance. To back up this subject, O’Flaherty refrains from calling any of his characters. ” The other basic idea, and in this essay the more relevant one is that “ war knows no boundaries-age, sex, location, clip of twenty-four hours, household ties. The IRA sniper is a immature adult male, and the betrayer is an old adult female. The contending takes topographic point in the bosom of a metropolis after sundown. The IRA sniper inadvertently shoots and kills his ain brother. ”

If I go farther, I have to state that these two constructs are fundamentally one, because if there would be faces, names of people in war, than it would be much harder to traverse the boundary lines listed supra. Nameless, faceless soldiers, combatants know merely that they have to kill the enemy on the other side, because if non, so the enemy is traveling to kill them.

3. Bing brothers, being enemies

As I mentioned earlier the greatest boundary line crossing in Liam O’Flaherty ‘s short narrative is that war crosses boundaries even within the household and between close friends. First of all, war does non look at who is on the other side, but there is besides a phenomenon that is a quite common human characteristic, and that is wonder. The IRA sniper himself must hold been believing about the individuality of the betrayer adult female he shot or the machine artilleryman, as he besides “ felt a sudden wonder as to the individuality of the enemy sniper whom he had killed. He decided that he was a good shooting, whoever he was. He wondered did he cognize him. Possibly he had been in his ain company before the split in the ground forces. ” ( O’Flaherty )

I wonder how can human existences reach the point to go enemies within a household, and how can one kill his ain brother. My research on these inquiries resulted in two replies. One of them is that in a sense each and every individual is brother or sister to all the others. This statement stands if worlds are wholly considered as posterities of Adam and Eve. Then all the wars and conflicts have their beginnings in the hatered and fight that was in Cain ‘s bosom against his brother Abel. In this really first slaying in history there were besides brothers, one of them killing the other. So to state, it is non recent job. If the first portion of the statement above is generalised, it can be said, that one does non hold to kill his or her closest household members to kill a brother or a sister. In the same clip, it has to be considered that sometimes closest household members do kill each other, merely as in this short narrative.

The job, every bit far as I can see, is that people take into consideration the jobs and inquiries that war raises, when there is already war, when it is already late to forestall world from slaying each other. It leads to another of import point, that is that worlds someway do non desire to halt war. Allan Farquhar says: “ Nineteen hundred old ages ago at that place came a new and godly message, “ Love your enemies. ” Nothing of the sort had of all time been taught before, and in the centuries since so it has fallen largely on deaf ears. Even now it seemingly has small consideration. Yet, the spirit of this message must be followed if wars are to be done off with forever. ”

At this point, I find an even greater boundary line crossing in literature connected to war. Equally long as person is out at that place in the battleground or in a metropolis that is under besieging, it is world for him, but when the inside informations of a war or a conflict is written down in a literary work it is no more existent universe. It might hold been one time portion of world, but it became fiction. I would state, that to a certain point literature and humanistic disciplines have a great duty in romanticizing war, and this manner coercing people into it, as they want the experience that they can read approximately. Although, this experience in most of the instances is dissatisfactory, people still start wars, travel combat and compose new pieces of literary plants about it.

4. Psychology of soldiers

There are state of affairss in our lives that are difficult to be dealt with. One such state of affairs is being a soldier, particularly for the first clip, traveling to contend on a conflict field. There are several surveies carried out about the behavior, the ideas, the feelings of soldiers. The first and most of import inquiry is who are these people out on the battleground, and how do they acquire at that place.

In war-time “ people were governed about wholly by their emotions ” , as Bird writes. Peoples are effected, influenced by feelings and ideas that make them believe that traveling to contend is the merely right manner to make. They think they have to protect their households, places, state, their fatherland needs them, leans on them. So, these work forces become soldiers and get down wars against many other people who are merely like they are.

By the clip soldiers reach the field where they have to contend, they change a batch. They left their place as ordinary people, but now they got used to sounds, noises, odors, sights that are all portion of war. As Bird writes: “ I ‘ve seen them wounded and maintaining on as if nil had happened. It ‘s non that they do n’t experience the hurting – brand no error about that – they wo n’t experience it. ”

When the enemy ranges, when the two opposing ground forcess are at that place face to confront, soldiers no longer see the other side as persons, as people with household at place. “ His encephalon ( the soldier ‘s ) is activated by the attack of the enemy. ” – said by Bird. Exhilaration grows and the ancient inherent aptitude of contending start to work. That is the point of no return, they have to contend or decease. This is the same in The Sniper. He knows that it might be person he knows, possibly a former friend, person similar to him, but he has to contend, kill the other sniper, because if non so the enemy kills him.

I have written earlier that literature may do war a romantic subject, but “ war can ne’er offer love affair for me once more ; we had one killed and four wounded acquiring out, and so three yearss and three darks of processing in our pathetic status to the remainder notes, ‘from which I am composing. ” – writes Harry, a soldier.

5. Decision

In this essay the chief purpose was to compose about the boundary line crossings in war and link it to literature. The footing of the essay was Liam O’Flaherty ‘s short narrative The Sniper. The narrative is about the battles of “ Republicans and Free Staters ” , after Ireland was split into two, spliting non merely the land, but besides the people themselves.

There are border crossings in the subject of the literary work, that is war. One of them is that war has no consideration of any human features, such as age or sex. But the most of import boundary line to be crossed is relationships, particularly close relationships, for illustration within a household or between closest friends. Either people themsleves or leaders decide for them, it happens from clip to clip to happen themselves on the opposite side than his or her relations are.

There are other interesting phenomena connected to the above subject. There is a statement to see, that each and every human being is brother or sister to the others, if we consider Adam and Eve as our earliest ascendants. Furthermore, literature is an art that can act upon people really much. Equally long as it is a written fiction, a war narrative does non harm anybody, but after reading such a narrative human wonder drives people to seek what they were reading approximately. This is a boundary line traversing between world and fiction.

The last portion of this essay contains a short psychologycal analysis of soldiers. They might come from a normal background, from a loving household, a booming state and somehow they become liquidators. As I have written above there are act uponing factors and one of them is literature. There can be postings, mottos naming to war, that have much consequence on people ‘s emotions, forcing them to contend. While soldiers are processing to the battleground they go through great alterations. They get used to elements of war, and when the enemy approaches the ancient inherent aptitudes make them ready to contend.

All in all, I have to state that war ruins many boundary lines that should non be crossed this manner and because of this “ war can ne’er offer love affair for me once more ” ( Harry ) .