Issue 1. Did Homo Sapiens Originate in Africa?
Yes: Christopher Stringer and Robin McKie. from African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity NO: Milford Wolpoff and Rachel Caspari. from Race and Human Evolution Science research worker Christopher Stringer and scientific discipline author Robin McKie province that modern worlds first developed in Africa and so distribute to other parts of the universe. Paleoanthropologists Milford Wolpoff and Rachel Caspari counter that modern worlds developed at the same time in different parts of the universe.

Issue 2. Be the Aryans Responsible for the Demise of the Indus Valley Civilization? Yes: Stanley Wolpert. from A New History of India. 6th erectile dysfunction.
NO: Jonathan Mark Kenoyer. from Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization Historian Stanley Wolpert states that the Aryan invasion of the Indus Valley did happen and that it played a function in the death of the Indus Valley civilisation. Archaeologist Jonathan Mark Kenoyer counters that there is small cogent evidence that the Aryan invasion occurred and that the diminution of the Indus Valley civilisation was due to internal environmental and societal conditions.

Issue 3. Was Egyptian Civilization African?
Yes: Clinton Crawford. from Recasting Ancient Egypt in the African Context: Toward a Model Curriculum Using Art and Language NO: Kathryn A. Bard. from “Ancient Egyptians and the Issue of Race. ” in Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers. explosive detection systems. . Black Athena Revisited Clinton Crawford. an helper professor who specializes in African humanistic disciplines and linguistic communications as communications systems. asserts that grounds from the Fieldss of anthropology. history. linguistics. and archaeology proves that the antediluvian Egyptians and the civilization they produced were of black African beginning. Assistant professor of archeology Kathryn A. Bard argues that although black African beginnings contributed to the history and civilization of ancient Egypt. its civilisation was fundamentally multicultural in beginning.

Issue 4. Was Sumerian Civilization Exclusively Male Dominated? YES: Chester G. Starr. from A History of the Ancient World
NO: Samuel Noah Kramer. from “Poet and Psalmists: Goddesss and Theologians: Literary. Religious. and Anthropological Aspects of the Legacy of Sumer. ” in Denise Schmandt-Besserat. erectile dysfunction. . The Legacy of Sumer: Invited Lectures on the Middle East at the University of Texas at Austin Historian Chester G. Starr finds Sumerian society to be male dominated. from the Gods to human priests and male monarchs. and he hardly acknowledges the position of adult females in either the heavenly or the earthly kingdom. Museum conservator Samuel Noah Kramer relies on much of the same information as Starr. but finds powerful goddesses and earthly adult females to hold played outstanding functions in both cosmic and mundane Sumerian life.

Issue 5. Department of energies Alexander the Great Merit His Exalted Historical Reputation? Yes: N. G. L. Hammond. from The Genius of Alexander the Great NO: Ian Worthington. from “How `Great’ Was Alexander? ” The Ancient History Bulletin Professor emeritus of Greek N. G. L. Hammond states that research has proven that Alexander the Great is meriting of his honored historical repute. Professor Ian Worthington counters that Alexander’s actions were self-seeking and finally weakened his Macedonian fatherland ; hence. he does non deserve the historical repute he has been given.

Issue 6. Did Christianity Liberate Women?
Yes: Karen L. King. from “Women in Ancient Christianity: The New Discoveries. ” a Report From FRONTLINE NO: Karen Armstrong. from The Gospel Harmonizing to Woman: Christianity’s Creation of the Sex War in the West Professor of New Testament surveies and the history of ancient Christianity Karen L. King nowadayss grounds from scriptural and other late discovered antediluvian texts to light women’s active engagement in early Christianity–as adherents. apostles. Prophetss. sermonizers. and instructors. Professor of spiritual surveies Karen Armstrong finds in the early Christian Church illustrations of ill will toward adult females and fright of their sexual power. which she contends led to the eventual exclusion of adult females from full engagement in a male-dominated church.

Part 2. The Medieval/Renaissance Worlds

Issue 7. Did Same-Sex Unions Exist in Medieval Europe?
Yes: John Boswell. from Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe
NO: Philip Lyndon Reynolds. from “Same-Sex Unions: What Boswell Didn’t Find. ” The Christian Century Professor John Boswell ( 1947-1994 ) states that same-sex brotherhoods. which dated back to pagan times. existed in mediaeval Europe until they were bit by bit done away with by the Christian Church. Reviewer Philip Lyndon Reynolds. while acknowledging that “brotherhood” ceremonials took topographic point in the prescribed period. asserts that these ceremonials did non hold the same authorization as sacred brotherhoods and hence can non be equated with matrimony rites.

Issue 8. Were Environmental Factors Responsible for the Collapse of Maya Civilization? Yes: Richard E. W. Adams. from Prehistoric Mesoamerica. rpm. erectile dysfunction. NO: George L. Cowgill. from “Teotihuacan. Internal Militaristic Competition. and the Fall of the Classic Maya. ” in Norman Hammond and Gordon R. Willey. explosive detection systems. . Maya Archaeology and Ethnohistory Professor of anthropology Richard E. W. Adams argues that although military factors played a function in the Maya death. a combination of internal and environmental factors was more responsible for that consequence. Professor of anthropology George L. Cowgill states that although there is no monocausal account for the Maya prostration. military enlargement played a more of import function than bookmans originally thought.

Issue 9. Be the Crusades Primarily Motivated by Religious Factors? Yes: Hans Eberhard Mayer. from The Crusades. 2d erectile dysfunction. . trans. John Gillingham NO: Ronald C. Finucane. from Soldiers of the Faith: Reformers and Moslems at War German historian Hans Eberhard Mayer states that although there were other factors of import to the development of the Crusades. the strongest motive was a spiritual one. British historian Ronald C. Finucane counters that although the spiritual influence on the Crusades was important. political. societal. economic. and military factors in medieval Europe besides played a function in their beginning. development. and result.

Issue 10. Does the Modern University Have Its Roots in the Islamic World? Yes: Mehdi Nakosteen. from History of Islamic Origins of Western Education a. d. 800-1350 NO: Charles Homer Haskins. from The Rise of Universities

Professor of history and doctrine of instruction Mehdi Nakosteen traces the roots of the modern university to the aureate age of Muslim civilization ( 750-1150 c. e. ) . He maintains that Muslim bookmans assimilated the best of classical scholarship and developed the experimental method and the university system. which they passed on to the West before worsening. The late historiographer Charles Homer Haskins ( 1870-1937 ) traces the university of the 20th century to its predecessors in Paris and Bologna. where. he argues. during the twelfth and 13th centuries the first universities in the universe sprang up.

Issue 11. Did Women and Men Benefit Equally From the Renaissance? Yes: Margaret L. King. from Women of the Renaissance
NO: Joan Kelly-Gadol. from “Did Womans Have a Renaissance? ” in Renate Bridenthal. Claudia Koonz. and Susan Stuard. explosive detection systems. . Becoming Visible: Womans in European History. 2d erectile dysfunction. Historian Margaret L. King studies Renaissance adult females in domestic. spiritual. and learned scenes and discoveries reflected in their lives a new consciousness of themselves as adult females. as intelligent searchers of a new manner of being in the universe. Historian Joan Kelly-Gadol discovered in her work as a Renaissance bookman that well-born adult females seemed to hold enjoyed greater advantages during the Middle Ages and experienced a comparative loss of place and power during the Renaissance.

Issue 12. Was Zen Buddhism the Primary Shaper of the Warrior Code of the Nipponese Samurai? Yes: Winston L. King. from Zen and the Way of the Sword: Arming the Samurai Psyche NO: Catharina Blomberg. from The Heart of the Warrior: Beginnings and Religious Background of the Samurai System in Feudal Japan Religious scholar Winston L. King credits the monastic Eisai with presenting Zen to the Hojo samurai Godheads of Japan who recognized its affinity with the warrior’s profession and character. Japanologist Catharina Blomberg emphasizes the diverseness of influences on the samurai psyche–Confucianism. Shinto. and Zen–stressing the struggle between a warrior’s responsibility and Buddhist ethical rules.

Part 3. The Premodern World

Issue 13. Were Christopher Columbus’s New World Discoveries a Positive Force in the Development of World History? Yes: Felipe Fernandez-Armesto. from Columbus
NO: Kirkpatrick Sale. from The Conquest of Paradise: Christopher Columbus and the Columbian Legacy Historian Felipe Fernandez-Armesto provinces that although Columbus was far from perfect. the overall consequences of his work virtue consideration as holding helped to determine the modern universe. Writer Kirkpatrick Sale sees Columbus as a merchandise of a ill. dispirited Europe and concludes that the selfish nature of his work and what resulted from it prevented Europe from utilizing the New World discoveries as an chance for the continent’s redemption.

Issue 14. Was China’s Worldview Responsible for Its Failure to Continue Its Commercial and Maritime Efforts During the Ming Dynasty? Yes: Nicholas D. Kristof. from “1492: The Prequel. ” The New York Times Magazine NO: Bruce Swanson. from Eighth Ocean trip of the Dragon: A History of China’s Quest for Seapower Journalist Nicholas D. Kristof states that China’s worldview. shaped by centuries of philosophical and cultural conditioning. was responsible for its determination to discontinue its nautical ventures during the Ming dynasty. Naval historian Bruce Swanson acknowledges that China’s worldview played a function in its determination to discontinue its maritime plans. but maintains that there were other. more practical considerations that were responsible for that determination.

Issue 15. Did Martin Luther’s Reforms Improve the Lives of European Christians? YES: Robert Kolb. from Martin Luther as Prophet. Teacher. Hero: Images of the Reformer. 1520-1620 No: Hans Kung. from Great Christian Thinkers. trans. John Bowden Religion and history professor Robert Kolb contends that Martin Luther was seen as a prophetic instructor and hero whose life brought hope. Godhead approval. and needed restoratives to the Christian church. Theologian and professor emeritus of divinity Hans Kung positions Martin Luther as the inaugurator of a paradigm displacement and as the unintentional Godhead of both bloody spiritual wars and an unhealthy subservience by ordinary Christians to local swayers in secular affairs.

Issue 16. Were European Witch-hunts Misogynistic?
Yes: Anne Llewellyn Barstow. from “On Analyzing Witchcraft as Women’s History: A Historiography of the European Witch Persecutions. ” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion NO: Robin Briggs. from Witches and Neighbors: The Social and Cultural Context of European Witchcraft History professor Anne Llewellyn Barstow asserts that the European witch-hunt motion made adult females its primary victims and was used as an effort to command their lives and behaviour. History professor Robin Briggs states that although adult females were the European witch-hunts’ chief victims. gender was non the lone finding factor in this socio-cultural motion.

Issue 17. Be the Scientific Revolution Revolutionary?
Yes: Herbert Butterfield. from The Origins of Modern Science. 1300-1800. rpm. erectile dysfunction. NO: Steven Shapin. from The Scientific Revolution Historian of thoughts Herbert Butterfield argues that the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries witnessed a extremist interruption with the yesteryear and the outgrowth of dramatically new ways of understanding both cognition and the world–in short. a Scientific Revolution. Professor of sociology and historiographer of scientific discipline Steven Shapin inquiries the thought of a Scientific Revolution. proposing that there was no extremist interruption with the past and rejecting the being of a individual event that might be called a Scientific Revolution.

Issue 18. Make the West Define the Modern World?
Yes: William H. McNeill. from The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community NO: Steven Feierman. from “African Histories and the Dissolution of World History. ” in Robert H. Bates. V. Y. Mudimbe. and Jean O’Barr. explosive detection systems. . Africa and the Disciplines: The Contributions of Research in Africa to the Social Sciences and Humanities Professor of history William H. McNeill states that in 1500. western Europe began to widen its influence to other parts of the universe. ensuing in a revolution in universe relationships in which the West was the chief helper. History professor Steven Feierman argues that because historiographers have viewed modern history in a unidirectional ( European ) mode. the parts of non-European civilisations to universe history have gone either undiscovered or unreported. . .