Sarcasm arises due to an incongruousness between what might be expected and what really occurs. The word sarcasm is derived from the Latin word ‘ironia ‘ significance feigned ignorance. Dramatic Irony is normally used as a device by dramatists. Irony may bring forth a tragic consequence, or a amusing consequence depending upon the fortunes in the drama or the novel. There are many different types of sarcasm including dramatic, verbal and situational sarcasm. Dramatic sarcasm is one which is used extensively in both these plants. In this essay I will analyze the employment of dramatic Irony as a tool by Henrik Ibsen in his modern calamity, ‘A Doll ‘s House ‘ and by Isabel Allende in her novel on love, thaumaturgy and household pride ‘The House of Spirits ‘ .
Henrik Ibsen, in A Doll ‘s House uses the talkers to use both witting and unconscious sarcasm whereas Isabel Allende uses sarcasm along with charming pragmatism. Allende, similar to Ibsen, uses sarcasm to specify the love between Esteban Treuba and Clara. She besides uses sarcasm in the drama to convey to illume the place of adult females in that society and to expose the society ‘s defects in those times.
Henrik Ibsen ‘s usage of sarcasm in his drama is rather alone. Henrik Ibsen focuses chiefly in the employment of sarcasm in the matrimonial relationship of Nora and Helmer. Irony is established early on in the drama during Nora ‘s confab with Mrs. Linde, where she says “ d’you know what a shot of fortune we ‘ve had? ”[ 1 ]where she talks, or instead crows about her hubby acquiring promoted as the director of the bank. She says, “ To hold no more concerns, all one demands. Is n’t it wonderful? “ 2 and besides “ Not merely all one demands, but tonss of money excessively ” 3. Here, Nora visualizes a happy and blissful life with Helmer along with an implied significance about her loan. However, there is unconscious sarcasm in what she says because later on in the drama, her matrimonial relationship will be shattered and she will go forth her hubby and all the ‘money ‘ that she had visualized, for an unsure hereafter in the broad universe recognizing that the universe she was populating in was precisely correspondent to the universe of a marionette, or instead, a doll. Hence, the rubric “ A Doll ‘s House ” is an disposed one. Another case of unconscious sarcasm is in the words of Mrs. Linde during this conversation with Nora. When she says “ Nora, Nora have you still non grown up? You were an excessive small thing at school ” 4, she still considers Nora to be the small kid she had known, but would subsequently recognize Nora ‘s transmutation, from the child-like miss she had known to an accountable and painstaking adult female.
This case can be compared to that in Allende ‘s ‘The House of Spirits ‘ where Clara transforms from a care-free adult female life in her ain universe to a responsible adult female who decides to do Tres ‘ Marias a better topographic point to populate in. When Blanca remarks “ Mama, you have changed ” 5, Clara replies “ It ‘s non me who ‘s changed, it ‘s the universe. “ 6 Comparing these cases, we see the differences every bit good as the similarities between the employments of sarcasm of these two authors. While Ibsen has used sarcasm as a tool to portray the human rights which he thinks are ideal, whereas, Allende has used sarcasm in the same context along with the cases portraying human pride and nature.
Allende besides focuses on the facet of poorness during the transition of clip along with other issues addressed around the universe such as Marxism, Bolshevik thoughts and Socialism every bit good as the struggle between them. The importance of pride and regard in society is discernable really early on in this novel. Losing regard in the society was something that would non travel down with anyone good, particularly Esteban Treuba. He was ready to give up his girl to a adult male whose history was unknown to him and besides that he would be paying him for maintaining this matrimony integral shows how despairing Esteban Treuba was to acquire his girl married to person of the upper categories to continue his regard in the society. On the political forepart, Esteban Treuba ‘s assurance in his party and his unmindful attitude towards other parties would take to his ruin. When Senator Treuba says, “ This is a different state. Here the Conservative Party wins clearly and openly, and we do n’t necessitate a general to maintain things orderly and quiet, non like the adjacent absolutisms. “ 7 This would so turn out to be ironical because the exact antonym of what is quoted would take topographic point as his Party would stop up losing the elections denting his pride all.[ 2 ]
Comparisons can besides be drawn between the employment of sarcasm sing the regard and place in the society. Ibsen has used Helmer as a theoretical account for the chesty adult male of the nineteenth century in which he has nil else to believe of but his ain regard in the society. Helmer here talks about how his regard in the society means everything to him and his hope to maintain this regard on path. All this is portrayed when he says “ Your male parent was n’t a respected public functionary. I am. And I hope I ‘ll ever be so, every bit long as I stay in the office. “ 8 Here, he refers to Nora ‘s male parent when he, as a immature attorney, had been commissioned by the metropolis governments to look into allegations that Nora ‘s male parent had mishandled public financess. Here, there is unconscious sarcasm as his image as a respected functionary in the society will be shattered when Nora leaves Helmer and moves on to be her ain individual in the hereafter. Ibsen has portrayed in his Hagiographas what he has quoted: “ for me it has been a inquiry of human rightsaˆ¦ my undertaking has been the portraiture of human rights. “ 9
Ibsen and Allende have besides used sarcasm to exemplify the love bing in the matrimonial relationships of Nora and Torvald and Esteban Treuba and Clara. In “ A Doll ‘s House ” , Torvald considers Nora to be a feeble-minded adult female and their relationship was similar to that between a male parent and a girl. Another illustration of unconscious sarcasm is in the concluding act of the drama where Torvald talks fondly to Nora stating “ I imagine you ‘re my new immature bride, we ‘ve merely come from the nuptials ” 10 given that Torvald would ne’er hold thought that in a short span of clip, Nora would go forth him to venture into the barbarous universe outside to be her ain individual. The relationship between Clara and Esteban Treuba is a contrast to the relationship of Nora and Torvald. Esteban Treuba, though really caring and compassionate towards Clara, she remains really apathetic to him. “ She had already made up her head to get married without love. “ 11[ I ]This quotation mark is directed towards Clara, who is like a heavenly being above all others in her universe. “ She was a charitable and generous adult female, eager to do those around her happy- everyone except me. “ 12 The talker in this quotation mark is Esteban Treuba and negotiations about the love bing or instead, harmonizing to him, the love that existed between him and Clara conveying his ideas that Clara ‘s desire and love for him has expired. This is highly ironical because Clara ‘s desire and love for him had ne’er existed.
In this essay, we have seen how sarcasm has been used as a dramatic tool by Henrik Ibsen and Isabel Allende. Both the writers have used sarcasm in their texts to foreground the defects in their societies besides turn toing different issues in the universe particularly the male jingoism. They besides bring to illume the love bing in the matrimonial relationships in their plants. All in all, through their plants, they have stirred the foundations of their societies.