Gene Technology

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010 Chapter 10 Gene Technology Student: _________________________________________________________ 1. Trimming certain genes out of molecules of DNA requires the use of special: A. digestive enzymes B. restriction enzymes C. enzymes from peroxisomes D. microscopic scalpels 2. To seal the cut fragments of DNA together, an enzyme called __________ is used. A. amylase B. peptidase C. trypsin D. ligase 3. Choose the correct sequence for gene transfer procedures. A. cleaving DNA, recombining DNA, cloning, screening B. screening, cleaving DNA, cloning, recombining DNA C. recombining DNA, screening, cloning, cleaving DNA

D. cleaving DNA, cloning, screening, recombining DNA 4. The step that is most labor-intensive in gene transfer procedures is: A. cleaving DNA B. recombining DNA C. screening D. cloning 5. Some bacteria, through natural selection, have acquired some extremely potent enzymes that destroy viral DNA, thereby preventing the bacterial cell from becoming infected with the virus. These enzymes are called: A. DNA polymerases B. DNA ligases C. restriction endonucleases D. restriction ligases 6. When researchers wish to make multiple copies of a gene without first inserting it into a bacterium, they employ the:

A. centrifuge B. pepsin activation reaction C. polymerase chain reaction D. gel electrophoresis 7. If a fragment of eukaryotic RNA is needed that is made up only of exons, the place to look in the cell to find this is: A. attached to the inner cell membrane B. inside the nucleolus C. inside the nucleus D. in the cytoplasm 8. Primers are: A. short sequences of nucleotides on either side of the gene to be amplified B. sticky ends of DNA fragments C. beginning nucleotide sequences in plasmids D. types of undercoating for paint 9. The enzyme used to carry out the polymerase chain reaction on DNA is:

A. transcriptase B. reverse transcriptase C. RNA polymerase D. DNA polymerase 10. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is also used to: A. clone entire organisms B. make polyploid copies of the human genome C. make DNA “fingerprints” in criminal investigations D. clone bacterial colonies 11. The enzyme used to make a DNA copy complementary to processed mRNA is: A. transcriptase B. reverse transcriptase C. RNA polymerase D. DNA polymerase 12. DNA fingerprinting is a highly accurate method of identifying a criminal from evidence, (blood, hair, skin, semen) left at a crime scene. True    False 3. Inserting a gene encoding a pathogenic microbe’s surface protein into a harmless virus is the way a(n) _________________ is produced. A. piggyback vaccine B. clone of antibodies C. virulent virus D. active disease-causing pathogen 14. A friend asks you a question after your biology class. “What’s genetic engineering? ” Your answer is: A. “Genetic engineering is the ability of scientists to remove a nucleus from a cell and place it into another cell. ” B. “Genetic engineering is taking proteins from one organism and placing them into another organism of a different species. ” C. Genetic engineering is moving genes from one organism to another. ” D. “Genetic engineering is removing structural components, for example a lysosome, from one part of a cell and placing those structures elsewhere in that cell. ” 15. Genetic engineering in agriculture has been employed to: A. make crops resistant to insect pests B. make crops resistant to certain herbicides C. make crops more nutritious D. All of these are correct. 16. Crop plants are made resistant to insect pests by: A. causing them to grow taller B. inserting a gene from bacteria that secrete Bt C. coating them with a gel D. All of these are correct. 17.

Glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide Roundup, is a good choice for engineering plants resistant to it because: A. it is a powerful herbicide B. it is readily biodegradable C. humans are not affected by it D. All of these are correct. 18. “Golden” rice is so-named because it contains: A. vitamin C B. vitamin A and iron C. nitrogen D. golden bacteria 19. The introduction of bovine growth hormone into the diets of dairy cows is important because it: A. doubles the number of calves they produce annually B. makes them immune to infection by plasmids C. greatly improves their milk production D. improves the taste of their milk 0. A number of human genes have been inserted into bacteria to produce many useful human proteins EXCEPT: A. insulin B. factor VIII C. anticoagulants D. human hemoglobin 21. Moving genes from one organism to another is often referred to as ________________________. ________________________________________ 22. Scientists employ a method called ___________________ to visual fragments of genes they are attempting to isolate. ________________________________________ 23. EcoRI is an example of a ______________________. ________________________________________ 24. PCR is an abbreviation for _________________________. _______________________________________ 25. When RNA polymerase makes an unprocessed mRNA copy of DNA, the copy is called the ___________________. ________________________________________ 26. When the introns are removed to make mRNA that can be used in protein synthesis, the mRNA is now called __________________. ________________________________________ 27. A _______ is a tiny circle of bacterial DNA that is capable of replicating outside of the main bacterial chromosome. ________________________________________ 28. When genes are inserted into lung cells of cystic fibrosis patients, this kind of treatment is referred to as _______________. _______________________________________ 29. Combining the DNA of two different organisms is called ______________ cloning. ________________________________________ 30. Plasmids or viruses can serve as _______________ to carry foreign DNA into the host cell. ________________________________________ 31. When the method is perfected, it will be possible to transfer “healthy” genes into cystic fibrosis patients via aerosol inhalants to “cure” this genetic disease. Is this type of gene transfer an actual cure or is it a treatment? In other words, could this person still pass along cystic fibrosis genes? 32.

What is the advantage of using restriction enzymes to cleave DNA? 33. In gene transfer procedures, why is it necessary to use processed mRNA molecules to make DNA to transfer to another organism? 34. What are some of the benefits of transferring genes from one organism to another? 35. Do you feel there is any harm in cloning mammals? Why? Why not? 010 Chapter 10 Gene Technology KEY 1. Trimming certain genes out of molecules of DNA requires the use of special: a. digestive enzymes B  restriction enzymes c. enzymes from peroxisomes d. microscopic scalpels 2. To seal the cut fragments of DNA together, an enzyme called __________ is used. . amylase b. peptidase c. trypsin D  ligase 3. Choose the correct sequence for gene transfer procedures. A  cleaving DNA, recombining DNA, cloning, screening b. screening, cleaving DNA, cloning, recombining DNA c. recombining DNA, screening, cloning, cleaving DNA d. cleaving DNA, cloning, screening, recombining DNA 4. The step that is most labor-intensive in gene transfer procedures is: a. cleaving DNA b. recombining DNA C  screening d. cloning 5. Some bacteria, through natural selection, have acquired some extremely potent enzymes that destroy viral DNA, thereby preventing the bacterial cell from becoming infected with the virus.

These enzymes are called: a. DNA polymerases b. DNA ligases C  restriction endonucleases d. restriction ligases 6. When researchers wish to make multiple copies of a gene without first inserting it into a bacterium, they employ the: a. centrifuge b. pepsin activation reaction C  polymerase chain reaction d. gel electrophoresis 7. If a fragment of eukaryotic RNA is needed that is made up only of exons, the place to look in the cell to find this is: a. attached to the inner cell membrane b. inside the nucleolus c. inside the nucleus D  in the cytoplasm 8. Primers are: A  short sequences of nucleotides on either side of the gene to be amplified . sticky ends of DNA fragments c. beginning nucleotide sequences in plasmids d. types of undercoating for paint 9. The enzyme used to carry out the polymerase chain reaction on DNA is: a. transcriptase b. reverse transcriptase c. RNA polymerase D  DNA polymerase 10. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is also used to: a. clone entire organisms b. make polyploid copies of the human genome C  make DNA “fingerprints” in criminal investigations d. clone bacterial colonies 11. The enzyme used to make a DNA copy complementary to processed mRNA is: a. transcriptase B  reverse transcriptase c. RNA polymerase d.

DNA polymerase 12. DNA fingerprinting is a highly accurate method of identifying a criminal from evidence, (blood, hair, skin, semen) left at a crime scene. TRUE 13. Inserting a gene encoding a pathogenic microbe’s surface protein into a harmless virus is the way a(n) _________________ is produced. A  piggyback vaccine b. clone of antibodies c. virulent virus d. active disease-causing pathogen 14. A friend asks you a question after your biology class. “What’s genetic engineering? ” Your answer is: a. “Genetic engineering is the ability of scientists to remove a nucleus from a cell and place it into another cell. ” b. Genetic engineering is taking proteins from one organism and placing them into another organism of a different species. ” C  “Genetic engineering is moving genes from one organism to another. ” d. “Genetic engineering is removing structural components, for example a lysosome, from one part of a cell and placing those structures elsewhere in that cell. ” 15. Genetic engineering in agriculture has been employed to: a. make crops resistant to insect pests b. make crops resistant to certain herbicides c. make crops more nutritious D  All of these are correct. 16. Crop plants are made resistant to insect pests by: a. causing them to grow taller

B  inserting a gene from bacteria that secrete Bt c. coating them with a gel d. All of these are correct. 17. Glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide Roundup, is a good choice for engineering plants resistant to it because: a. it is a powerful herbicide b. it is readily biodegradable c. humans are not affected by it D  All of these are correct. 18. “Golden” rice is so-named because it contains: a. vitamin C B  vitamin A and iron c. nitrogen d. golden bacteria 19. The introduction of bovine growth hormone into the diets of dairy cows is important because it: a. doubles the number of calves they produce annually . makes them immune to infection by plasmids C  greatly improves their milk production d. improves the taste of their milk 20. A number of human genes have been inserted into bacteria to produce many useful human proteins EXCEPT: a. insulin b. factor VIII c. anticoagulants D  human hemoglobin 21. Moving genes from one organism to another is often referred to as ________________________. genetic engineering 22. Scientists employ a method called ___________________ to visual fragments of genes they are attempting to isolate. gel electrophoresis 23. EcoRI is an example of a ______________________. restriction enzyme 24.

PCR is an abbreviation for _________________________. polymerase chain reaction 25. When RNA polymerase makes an unprocessed mRNA copy of DNA, the copy is called the ___________________. primary transcript 26. When the introns are removed to make mRNA that can be used in protein synthesis, the mRNA is now called __________________. processed mRNA 27. A _______ is a tiny circle of bacterial DNA that is capable of replicating outside of the main bacterial chromosome. plasmid 28. When genes are inserted into lung cells of cystic fibrosis patients, this kind of treatment is referred to as _______________. gene therapy 29.

Combining the DNA of two different organisms is called ______________ cloning. transgenic 30. Plasmids or viruses can serve as _______________ to carry foreign DNA into the host cell. vectors 31. When the method is perfected, it will be possible to transfer “healthy” genes into cystic fibrosis patients via aerosol inhalants to “cure” this genetic disease. Is this type of gene transfer an actual cure or is it a treatment? In other words, could this person still pass along cystic fibrosis genes? Unless it is possible to correct the genetic defect in the person’s gametes, they will still be able to pass on the genes for cystic fibrosis.

However, the inhalant treatment is an important milestone in the treatment of this disease, especially if it can put a halt to the lung damage so characteristic of the cystic fibrosis patient. The life expectancy for these patients is short otherwise. 32. What is the advantage of using restriction enzymes to cleave DNA? Hundreds of different restriction enzymes are known. Once the scientist knows the nucleotide sequence on either side of the gene to be excised, the appropriate restriction enzyme can be used to cut the DNA at that particular spot.

The advantage is that restriction enzymes cut the DNA so it has “sticky” ends that can match up with complementary sequences elsewhere. 33. In gene transfer procedures, why is it necessary to use processed mRNA molecules to make DNA to transfer to another organism? This procedure is necessary only when the gene to be transferred comes from a eukaryote. Eukaryotic DNA contains introns as well as exons, and bacteria have no way of removing introns because their DNA has none. So introns must be removed, and processed mRNA molecules have already had that done. 34.

What are some of the benefits of transferring genes from one organism to another? First of all, we can get bacteria to mass-produce human proteins, such as the hormone insulin, that can be used to treat human diseases. Since the protein makes use of a human gene, it matches precisely that which would normally be produced in the human body. Second, many beneficial agricultural advances will surely come from gene transfers. For example, pest resistance in plants will lessen the need for pesticides that are costly and pollute the environment. 35. Do you feel there is any harm in cloning mammals? Why? Why not? Answers will vary.