Karl Heinrich Marx ( B. 5th May 1818, in Trier, Germany ) ‘is doubtless the most influential socialist mind ‘ who was ‘largely ignored by bookmans in his life clip ‘ . The organic structure of societal and political thoughts that he elaborated gained progressively rapid credence in the socialist motion after his decease in 1883, and it will be no hyperbole if we say: ‘Until late about half the population of the universe lived under governments that claimed to be Marxist ‘ . The cardinal belief of the Marxist that ‘Economic and Social conditions determine spiritual beliefs, legal systems and cultural models ‘ and that art should non merely stand for such conditions truthfully ‘but seek to better them ‘ . Similar is George Lukacs ‘s position that ‘realism meant more than rendering the surface visual aspect, it means supplying a more complete, true, graphic and dynamic position around ‘ . This inclination of interpreting the lived experiences into verse signifier stressing the content instead than the signifier is non wholly new to India. Indian society, a all right mixture of assorted civilizations, traditions and imposts has been a fertile land for a Marxist. Though for a Marxist critic, it was more complicated when he turned from the development of content to development of signifier. A. Lunacharsky ‘s observation is of import to observe when he says:

This is an highly of import undertaking, and Plekhanov emphasized its importance. What, so, is the general standard for rating here? The signifier must match to the content every bit closely as possible, giving it maximal expressiveness and guaranting the strongest possible impact on the readers for whom the work is intended. ( 15 )

Besides, he adds:

An creative person should show something that has non been expressed before. Reproduction is non an art ( Some painters find this hard to understand ) but merely a trade, albeit sometimes really all right. From this point of position, new content in every new work demands new signifier. ( 16 )

To Marx and Angles art ‘is one of the signifiers of societal consciousness and it, hence, follows that the ground for its of alterations sought in the societal alterations. Similarly B. Krylov found a materialist account of the beginning of aesthetic sense itself in the plants of Marx and Engels and he said:

They ( Marx and Engels ) noted that adult male ‘s artistic abilities, his capacity for comprehending the universe aesthetically, for groking its beauty and for making plants of art appeared as a consequence of the long development of human society and was the merchandise of adult male ‘s labor. ( Marx, et. Al. 18 )

In his book Economic and Philosophical Manuscript of 1844, Marx pinpoints ‘the function of labor in the development of adult male ‘s capacity to comprehend and reproduce the beautiful and to organize objects besides in conformity with the Torahs of beauty. ( Marx, et. Al. 277 )

And later, the thought evolved by Engels in his book Dialectics of Nature where he noted that the attempts of labor ‘have given the human manus the high grade of flawlessness required conjure into beam, the image of Raphael, the statues of Thorwaldsen, the image of Paganine. In this manner, we can see that Marxists vision that adult male ‘s aesthetic sense is non an congenital quality but it is developed in society by and by. Another critic Caudwell supports the fact:

Language is a societal merchandise, the instrument whereby work forces communicate and persuade each other, therefore the survey of poesy ‘s beginnings can non be separated from the survey of society. ( 9 )

It is a well-known fact that literature and society can non be individually studied nor can any literary unfavorable judgment start flinging the beginnings or graduated tables of either. Possibly for this peculiar ground later on Terry Eagleton laid accent on societal procedures which form the organic structure of literature:

Art so, is for Marxism portion of the ‘superstructure ‘ of society. It is a portion of a society ‘s ideology- an component in that complex construction of societal perceptual experience which ensures that the state of affairs in which one societal category has power over the others is either seen by most members of the society as ‘natural ‘ or non seen at all. To understand literature, so, means understanding the entire societal procedure of which it is portion. ( 5 )

To all taking critics of Marxism, society and literature are corollary to each other. Some critics like James T. Farrell have considered literature as arm of protest. He said that ‘the advocators of proletarian literature, who wrote chiefly in the New Masses, used to reason that literature is weapon in the category battle. If the author is non on one side, he is an unfastened guardian of the enemy or else he is giving assistance and comfort to that enemy ‘ . Harmonizing to James Farrell ‘life is full of enigmas, and one of the major enigmas of life is adult male himself. Literature investigations into that enigma ‘ . However another statement ( his ) is besides justified when he states:

Literature by its really nature, can non, in and of itself, work out societal and political jobs. Any solution to a societal or a political job in a work of literature is a strictly mental solution. These are jobs of action. Every job delimits the sort of agencies which can, and those which can non be of usage in it solution. This statement applies in logic, in mathematics, in the physical scientific disciplines, in the solution of societal and political jobs and in the jobs which any creative person must confront in his ain work. It is every bit absurd to presume that you an work out political and societal jobs with a verse form as it is to name in a painter and inquire him to salvage from decease a adult male stricken with appendicitis by painting a image. ( Farrell )

For many Marxists ‘it is non plenty to eliminate old steadfastly rooted false impressions sing its historical and societal foundation ; it is besides necessary to pull the literary and aesthetic decision from the right development of these societal and historical foundation ‘ .

George Lukacs proposes justly:

Literature has a great portion to play in work outing the new undertaking imposed by the new life in every state. If literature is truly to carry through this function, a function dictated by history, there must be as a natural requirement, a philosophical and political metempsychosis of the authors who produce it. The great lesson to be learnt from the Russian development is exactly the extent to which a great realist literature can fructifyingly educate the people and transform public sentiment. But such consequences can be achieved merely by genuinely great, profound across-the-board pragmatism. Hence, if literature is to be a powerful factor of national metempsychosis, it must itself be reborn in its strictly literary, formal, aesthetic facets every bit good. It must interrupt with reactionist, conservative traditions which hamper it and defy the seeping in of decadent influences which lead into a unsighted back street. ( Lukacs )

The belief that undertaking of literature and art has ever been to expose and particularly all the dark forces harming the multitudes must be exposed and all the radical battle of the multitudes of the of the people must be extolled ; this is the cardinal undertaking of the radical author and creative person ‘ need a more clear vision which is asserted clearly by Mao-Tse-Tung.

The undertaking of literature and art has ever been to expose. This averment, like the old one, arises from ignorance of the scientific discipline of history. Literature and art, as we have shown, have ne’er been devoted entirely to exposure. For radical authors and artists the marks for exposure can ne’er be multitudes, but merely the attackers, users and oppressors and evil influence they have on the people. The multitudes excessively have defects which should be overcome by unfavorable judgment and self-criticism within the people ‘s ain ranks, and such unfavorable judgment and self-criticism is besides one of the most of import undertakings of literature and art. But Mao-Tse-Tung was ever against exposure of the people besides because counter radical author and creative person describe the people as ‘born-food ‘ and the radical multitudes as ‘tyrannical rabble. ‘ Here it is indispensable that a author or a poet should knock the people ‘s defects but in making so he or she should take the base of the people and talk out of whole hearted avidity to protect and educate them.


If one starts journey through the gallery of post-independence Indian English poesy, one observes a considerable influence of Marxism on the Indian Literature and evidently Indian literature in English every bit. Kunwar Narain admits this world and says in an interview:

Marxism in 50 ‘s and 60 ‘s was a powerful influence on universe literature. Its accent on grassroots worlds, on socio-economic and political instructions of human poorness and geographic expedition focused the much needed attending in the jobs of common man-that his torment could be alleviated by effectual political, societal and economic action seemed to convey the great Utopian dream within range. ( Interview )

In the similar tone V.K. Gokak admits Marxism as ‘the merely Western aesthetic theory that has non yet assorted with oriental aestheticsaˆ¦ ‘ and for this ground Gokak pleads that ‘the Marxist believes in the determinism of affair and on that footing seeks to explicate all aesthetic phenomena ‘ . Gokak acknowledges Marx as an indispensable subdivision of cognition for understanding societal and political phenomenon.

But Gokak does non put on Marxism a curious accent for his surveies. For him ‘Marxism itself suffered some sea alterations, two of them being Stalinism and Anti-Stalinism ‘ and in India Gandhism has been an active doctrine of life so he finds that ‘it is dubious whether Marxism has any particular militias of inspiration for the Indian poet. ‘ But at the sometimes he hopes and adds: ‘But it can strongly color the mentality of some poets here and at that place. ( 162 )

Gokak ‘s observation may be true to some extent as his survey was limited to the poets between a peculiar period of 1947-1956, but he is non wholly right if we glance the full canvas of post-independence epoch boulder clay present twenty-four hours. As the rapid promotion of scientific discipline and engineering and the revolution in the field of media and communicating and conveyance declined the distances of topographic points to topographic points on one manus, while the distances of between a individuals and a individual are besides diminished on the other. Mans can easy see others ‘ strivings and perforations, unfairness and development, anomalousnesss and traumas happening 1000s of stat mis off sitting before his or her computing machine or telecasting now. So poetic eyes and ears are now more argus-eyed every bit good as have more chances to protest and contend against the fascist, communal and feudal. Therefore, Bhatnagar ‘s remark is right when he says:

The new Indian poesy in English is non simply fresh and varied but besides closely concerned with the surroundings about. ( Joshi 8 )

The new poets of Post-independence epoch are adorned with the characteristic of pragmatism and protest as they are every twenty-four hours watching the jobs of being: perversion, corruptness, devolution, morbidity, want, insecurity: panics of bloodshed ; hurting and torment of adrift violent deaths and deceases ; feelings of weakness ; consciousness of political and societal depravity ; jeer of idealism ; development of hapless and independency. In short, the lip service of adult male is runing at all the degrees of society. So, their poetic esthesia of course turns to protest and wishes non merely to reflect these jobs of being into their poesy in a pictural manner but besides urges the multitudes to lift against these actors of unfairness and Rebel against the so called capitalists, much alike in a mode of the Marxists.


The journey of Indian literature commences from the societal reformist Raja Ram Mohan Roy who protested foremost against the development of adult female and advocated the rights of imperativeness in his Hagiographas every bit good as actions and motions. Harmonizing to M. K. Naik, Roy wrote A Defense of Hindu Theism which was ‘the first and original publication in the history ‘ . Later on Henry Derozio ( 1808-31 ) who wrote first original poesy in English was less societal witting but more loyal. Derozio and Kashiprasad set the tone for the love of India which was followed by Toru Dutt, R.N. Tagore, Sarojini Naidu, M.M. Dutt, Sri Aurobindo, Kashiprasad Ghosh, Goroo Chand Dutt and R.C. Dutt. Similarly the first one-fourth of 20th century followed Romanticism, Victorianism. Poets like ‘Meherji, A.F. Khabardar, N.B. Thadhani, Nizamat Jung, Harendra Nath Chattopadhyaya, and Ananda Acharya exploited Indian and oriental idea in the typical Indian mode ‘ . The 2nd one-fourth of 20th century leaded a rich crop of poets like ‘V.N. Bhushan, S.R. Dongerkery, T.P. Kailasam, N. Krishna Murti and A. Menezes ‘ continued the humanistic tendency while Nolini Kant Gupta, Dilip Kumar Roy, E.L. Vaswani, Nirodvaran K.D. Sethna, Nishi Kanto, and Themis carried frontward the tradition of mystical poesy. ‘The 3rd one-fourth of twentieth century has seen the farther strengthening of modernist every bit good as new symbolist ‘s tendency ‘ . Here the poets published from ‘Writers Workshop ‘ like, P. Lal, Kamala Das, V.D. Trivedi, Marry Erulkar, A.K. Ramanujan and several others seem to uncover important development modernist lines in Indo-Anglian poesy ‘ .

The age from 1922 to 1947 can easy be called the age of indianness as all the Hagiographas of this period were either lauding the rich heritage of India or warning her diminution, but there was no rush of protest in the verse form of that clip as the people of this period were ( under Colonialism ) fighting for freedom of state or dazzled by the visible radiation of industrial revolution. But few poets cum societal reformists protested against the societal immoralities and ailments that had taken birth in the mediaeval age.


Indian English poesy before and independency has been a problematic subject among the critics. Critics are bifurcated into two groups on the accomplishment of Indian English poesy. There is group of critics like C.D. Narasimaih and V.K. Gokak who applaud the poesy of Sri Aurobindo and his Sarojini Naidu, while critics like Parthasarthy and others have appreciated the poesy of post-independence epoch ( after 1947 ) and have outrightly condemn the poesy of pre independency period. Harmonizing to these critics there has been no serious poesy written before independency and this poesy was missing the voice of protest and common mass and steeped more into ‘Romanticism ‘ or Lyricism. ‘ B.K. Das says:

Post independency Indian English poesy is echt because it is profoundly felt and addressed to the whole community ; Indian state of affairss form a critical portion of it. ( 4 )

In fact, these ‘Indian Situations ‘ of post-independence period which were full of battles, agonies, protest of new India against the age old tenet and imposts and traditions which have already lost their grace, countenance and keep on society in the medieval ages, were responsible for giving birth to ‘protest’- a term refreshed by Marx and Engels in Modern ages, and the same term, gained new appeals in Indian English poesy after independency.

Though Marxist inclinations or the thought of protest in non wholly new to Indian literature, instead it has its roots in our ancient Vedic literature besides. To cite I.K. Sharma is important:

Protest as an thought is non new to India. Our ancient literature gives umteen mentions of a individual who opposed, disapproved ungodly, unethical Acts of the Apostless of their seniors, higher-ups, wise mans and so on. Was ‘nt Prahalad, the first greatest protestor? Further, we have Buddha Shakaracharaya, Kabir and tonss of Vama Margis ( collectivists ) who vehemently opposed the conventional and stiff manner of thought in affairs of spiritual. ‘ ( Sharma, I.K. )

Undoubtedly we have sufficient cases of protest which clearly set up the fact that Indian literature has roots in some deeper bed of Marxist dirt besides, which subsequently on bloomed and nurtured new roses of ‘Protest ‘ in Post-independence clime. The first flower of protest flowers after independency during ‘Emergency ‘ ( 1975 ) . Prof. John Oliver Perry, a devout bookman and critic of Indian English poesy, emended Voices of Emergency -an all India Anthology of Protest Poetry of 1975-77 in which the verse forms ‘touch on universal subjects which have been evoked by similar unfairness an captivity the universe over ‘ . The verse form of the anthology, harmonizing to David Selbourne mirror ‘the poet ‘s fright of his ain cowardliness, or of the powerlessness of the verse form ; a sense of the universe, and the word, befouled ; the poet ‘s cautious and askance glimpse at the autocrat, the individualities of both camouflaged by metaphor, the sardonic smiling of the unbowed- a untouched- mocking the pretenses of power ; and kick rebelliousness, every bit old as tyranny itself, but much more digesting ‘ . ( Perry: “ Foreword ” IX )

However, the book contained some 280 verse forms from eight linguistic communications and two hundred and 50 poets from assorted parts of India whose voices of protest were non muffled and were taking the forms of written words. The book depicts the injury of subjugations, captivity and detainment during the periods of 1975-77 which was besides no less profoundly vocalized by poets of Indian English. The voice of protest in a higher crescendo can be listened in the words of Dilip Chitre who opens his verse form with a inquiry in a colloquial manner as follows. And he seems more tattered when he says:

A nationalist beyond inquiry?

For all that, you might still prefer to be

A treasonist among stupid people

Trying difficult

Not to decease. ( VE 135 )

In the same anthology, the voice of Kamala Das is besides stronger than any other poet of protest who says:

Tomorrow they may adhere me with ironss stronger than

Those of my cowardliness, ravish me with bayonets and

Hang me for my uncertainties. ( VE 230 )

Another poet, Amrit Gangar rises quickly and says vehemently in the words of Rajan who was imprisoned in Kerala in 1975 and died seemingly from constabulary maltreatment. The poet asks:

I ‘m Rajan


Where ‘s my entombment?

Why did n’t howl with me


When they perpetrated on me. ( VE 173 )

And he exhorts:

Rebel Kerala Rebel

Let your lust become


Bloody red


Bloody red.

While in the same anthology, Kusum Gokarn laments the batch of downtrodden and says:

Now that I am forsaken

I feel for the orphan ‘s shortness of breath ;

Now that I am out,

I understand the window ‘s suspirations. ( VE 147 )

The anthology contains best verse form of exigency. These verse forms castigate the political scenario with equal proportion to the societal system. Besides ‘the poesy of exigency period of political convulsion in India nowadayss spectacle of self find on the portion of Indian poets every bit good as dramas a dominant function in determining the present signifier of Indian English poesy ‘ . K. Ayyappa Paniker seems aright in this context:

Therefore the poetics of the exigency may be seen to hold a greater cogency than its political relations, for now we know neither the politicians nor those who support them learned any lesson from the experiences of the exigency. The lone addition of the emergency-if anything at all of value has lasted- is possibly this new poetics which has begun to model the characteristics of the poesy of the post-emergency period. ( Perry “ Introduction ” 3 )

Although, the anthology contains verse forms of other Indian linguistic communications, the verse forms written originally in English by Jayant Mahapatra, Nissim Ezekiel, Neeraj Sinha, Melani Silgardo, I.K. Sharma, G.V.J. Prasad, Nag Bhushan Patnayak, Navroz Modi, Keshav malik, H.S. Lal, Ivon Kostaka, Satyapal Julka and G.K.G. Joshi carry the subject of protest with equal gravitation and poetic esthesia. After exigency, Indian the poetics of Indian English poets is wholly changed their voice, their emotions and feelings in a more enhanced, intense, precise, symbolic and effectual mode. The freshness of look, realistic imagination, symbolism plaint of the loss of age old sacraments, values, cultural and moral diminution, mindless attitude and hollowness of promotion of scientific discipline and engineering have been the main traits of post-independence Indian English poets. Both established and well-published poets and less known poets have scribbled their pen in the ink of protest, yet a few modern-day poets deserve a particular reference like A.N. Dwivedi, Jayant Mahapatra, Nar Deo Sharma, O.P. Bhatnagar, D.H. Kabadi, Dilip Chitre, R.C. Shukla, Arun kolatkar, Pritish Nandy, Bibhu Padhi, Niranjan Mohanty, R.K. Singh, Keki N. Daruwala, and Baldev Mirza who protest and societal witting poets foremost than anyone else. A.N. Dwivedi, a major protest poet has a curious aggregation of rubric Protest Poems in which 37 verse forms, both new and old trade with the subject of protest in a vivid and varied mode. Dwivedi is a poet with a clear societal and political vision so he says in an interview with Dr. Nilanshu K. Agarwal:

A poet should aerate out the strivings and agonies of the people every bit best as he can. Their conditions must be ameliorated. The political system has non been able to present goods to the deprived and the destitute. The demand of the hr is to germinate a societal system, on the form of the British public assistance society, in which they can populate honorably and work productively. The flush and resourceful can make a batch in set uping such a system. The poet on his portion can travel on foregrounding their sorrow and job in an effectual mode. This is what I have been making in my poesy. ( “ An Epistolatory Interview ” )

The verse form of A.N. Dwivedi are the mirror of modern life hagridden with corruptness, graft, falseness, communalism, castism, political and societal instability and other idiosyncrasies of human being. His voice rises in inquiry when he looks at the devil of communal public violences:

Who is this awful devil

Raising his ugly caput

Scourging cities’n towns,

And marking the face of our fatherland?

Where does the normal life travel

When Gemini rams into malignant neoplastic disease. ( PP 11 )

And he relates the workss of devil as:

The devil does non let remainder

To the psyche of Gandhi ‘ N ‘ Nehru

Which are seen fluttering

Across the restive nothingness

Watching our misbehaviors

And crying o’er our batch. ( PP 12 )

Entrenched in inexorable worlds of life, Dwivedi has circumstantially observed the societal and political set up and people. In ‘slum inhabitants ‘ , he sketches the life of the hapless preliterate:

They live without hopes,

Without higher values of life.

No rainbow is their part,

No prism colour the hereafter

Of their boies n girl. ( PP 17 )

Similarly, he observes the mendicant:

Behold him in his dirty shreds,

Crouching along the street

And strike harding at every door

With an entreaty to the clemency

Of the sky-looking affluent,

Keeping out his wooden bowl. ( PP 19 )

Besides, Dwivedi has a deep apprehension of present changed political system of post-independence epoch which has a close relation with the Gunda and mobsters who are both the leaders and leader-makers at nowadays. His observation of politician and Gunda link is realistic:

This link is cloudy,

But works miracles

Thru hints’n ‘ gestures

One emerges winning

Hilarious over his success ;

The other grows rich

For his power to clitch

The other contestants. ( PP 63 )

An every bit societal witting poet O.P. Bhatnagar has besides observed the societal canvas of life of Indians who after half a century of independency have been mentally slave:

We ‘ve broken the ironss of bondage

The walls of prison house remain. ( AL 10 )

And he adds:

Long caged in bondage

We ‘ve become like circus king of beastss

Incapable of freedom in emotions

Become our prison walls. ( AL 11 )

The same quandary of Indian former is mourned in Bhatnagar ‘s another verse form:

So many old ages in Sun and rain

Has our freedom grown

But far down in small towns

I ‘am the same-

Oppressed, badly treated,

Humiliated and unusual. ( AL 13 )

Another luminary rhymer Nar Deo Sharma draws a realistic image of an Indian husbandman with redolent phrases and imagination:

There with his Sweet labor

He ploughs the lecherousness of dirt

Pregnant Earth delivers the green.

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — –

He drinks in perspiration but

Stitches his tattered batch with hope.

Bone-bale, debtdented, state disregard

A garbage of hardship he is. ( Unpublished )

He once more says:

Flood dearth, drouth are God ‘s

Answers of his earnest supplications

On hungriness he feeds his household

But satiates the appetency of the universe. ( Unpublished )

Nar Deo Sharma is a olympian vocalist of human quandary with all its horrid world, built-in poignancy and inexorable sarcasm. In his verse form ‘Law Court ‘ Sharma inquiries:

How long will you cleaving to jurisprudence

Which is so nearsighted, flimsy

That it attaches acceptance

To such crowd of groundss

Who by their false curse

First slay the Gods

Packed in the package

Of sanctum books

Then defeats the alone truth. ( Melody 1 )

Like Bhatnagar, Sharma ‘s poesy has deep apprehension of political ambiance of India. His verse forms are the exposure of the eroding of values in political relations. In his verse form ‘Leader, ‘ he satirizes a political leader of post-independence state:

He can happen

The national dream

Of the Olympic gold

If he is allowed

To run the endurance contest race

Of corruptness, bribed desertion. ( Melody 3 )

Nar Deo Sharma ‘s verse forms like ‘Money Plant ‘ , ‘Gandhism ‘ , ‘Indian Rites ‘ , ‘Dostoevsky My Mirror ‘ , ‘Suicidal Note ‘ , ‘Wife ‘ , ‘Indian Widows ‘ , ‘Cabaret Dancer ‘ , ‘Identity of Nations ‘ are the geographic expedition of present twenty-four hours political and societal universe where the poet is seen protesting against the societal and political immoralities every bit good as individuals responsible for the ruin of its ancient glorification.

R.C. Shukla is a brooding poet of protest who in most of his protest poems converses with his readers and do them every bit brooding. His verse forms take birth in foibles of his surroundings. He accentuates dark countries of human hurting, devastation, devastation, and physical afflictions around him and gives an impartial critical and pictural image of world in entirety. For illustration, the undermentioned lines mirror the suffering batch of the severely off and realist image of protest:

The hapless are expected to detect

Laws made by rich

Patriotism is their responsibility

And obeisance to the large their duty

That they do n’t acquire their due

Is their compulsion. ( Depth 46 )

Reflecting another realistic image of his modern-day societal and political life he says:

The leaders, the politicians

In conference with decision makers can be seen

Traveling in their vehicles

With fearful faces and arms

Inciting the rabble

They are in fact bit by bit impounding our peace. ( Depth 148 )

The premier concern of Shukla is Law and order which is now in hazard and hence he says:

Justice has left for the hills

And jurisprudence the chaperons has gone on leave

It is non known when the two shall rejoin. ( Justiceaˆ¦unpublished )

His voice of protest turns into a tanning sarcasm when he says:

It is in this status that

Religion becomes the suspiration of the laden

And a temple

The topographic point where the defeated individual weeps. ( My Poems Laugh 73 )

Shukla reaches to the pinnacle of protest and justifies even Suicide in the present blue ambiance of ‘Injustice, ‘ ‘Constant dishonor, ‘ and ‘humiliation ‘ and so he writes:

If there is a argument over

Whether a adult male should be allowed to perpetrate self-destruction or non

I would talk for the right

Merely as the strong people enjoy

The right to populate

The hapless and the laden

Must have the right to decease. ( Depth 108 )

Shukla ‘s verse forms like ‘Who Can Steal the Honour of a Strumpet? , ‘ ‘Why Do You Talk to Me Biblically About God, ‘ ‘Very Strange Are the Hours, ‘ ‘Preface, ‘ ‘Because of the Great Efficacy Evil Has obtained, ‘ ‘I am Better Inclined to Visit Churchyard, ‘ and ‘Nobody Can Live Without Justice ‘ are a all right blend of emotion and consciousness with razor-edge sarcasm and irony that heighten his genuineness and esthesia.

Baldev Mirza ‘s verse forms have several cases of protest but his protest rises from the land of subjectiveness and sarcasm. He says:

I protest

Against the age old Sun

That asks my individuality

Every day-

Tagged to the bit

Of paper I look

Like a worn out shoe

My male parent left

In the snow. ( Mirza 17 )

His aggregation Buddha my Love, is the poetic wall painting of human agonies calls, yearnings and a powerful voice of protest against the enemies of state. Mirza holds adult male responsible for the calamities and he writes:

I am Karna

But I have murdered none

My lone offense is

That I refused to

Put the wheel

Meant to oppress

The hapless

The oppressed. ( Buddha My Love 17 )

Similarly, D.H. Kabadi, a bracing voice of Post-Independence Indian English Poetry whose aggregation Pyramid Poems has a figure of societal witting verse forms, reveal him as a poet with a mission non to elicit feelings simply but to develop a vision and actuate him to stand against the subjugations. His realistic sarcasms and sarcasms purge our feelings every bit good as emotions when he says:



They say is an

Ass you can purchase it

With difficult hard currency and rubbish. ( Kabadi 1 )

Besides, adult females poets like Kamala Dass, Gauri Deshpandy, Lila Dharmraj, Malti Rao, Monika Verma, Anna Sujata Modayil, Laxmi Kannan, Rita Malhotra and Margret Chatterjee protested non merely against work forces and their subjugations but widened their skylines and wrote well on the developments done by the other people of power and boodle. Gauri Deshpande ‘s ‘Rain Poem ‘ provides a realistic image of rains and inundations of Kerala and the steps taken by the Government in this respect:

It is rather in the metropolis as we collect

Pathetic defence of boots and macs.

There ‘s still clip for chawls to prostration,

For coachs to skid and kill,

Trains to snap and flus to catch.

Ceremonially we rejoice before we pay

Flood- alleviation financess every twelvemonth. ( Dasgupta 45 )

Saudamini ( Sucheta Pai Jaweli ) writes protest verse forms voicing the torments and sufferings of modern Indian adult female. Particularly her verse form, ‘We Are the Domestic Jews ‘ narrates the suffering batch of adult female:

We ascend the pyres

To purity the dominant race

Withstand every anguish

Without a face

We are a deaf-and-dumb person batch

Bequeathed with agony.

We are domestic Jews,

Our lives have no significance. ( Kottor 185 )

And she continues:

There is mine neighbor ‘s house

Here, beaten by her partner

The fire in her dies out

While fire on her lives

And Roop still cries out

In these voices:


The married woman is the supreme Goddess

And she shall be treated no less.

The fire is dead

( The fire that begot cold impotent ash )

But the fire burns on. ( Kottor 185 )

Besides verse forms like ‘Calcutta ‘ , ‘If You Must Expatriate Me ‘ by Pritish Nandy ; ‘Dawn A Puri ‘ , ‘Hunger ‘ , ‘On The Death of A male child ‘ and ‘The Bride ‘ by Jayant Mahapatra ; ‘Rape of Gujrat ‘ and ‘Ambulance Ride ‘ by Dilip Chitre ; ‘An Old Woman, ‘ ‘Woman ‘ and ‘Suicide of Rama ‘ by Arun Kolatkar ; ‘Crematoriam in Adikmet ‘ , ‘Hyderabad, ‘ ‘At The Ghat of Banaras, ‘ ‘Epitaph on An Indian Politician ‘ and ‘The Dark Corridors of Justice ‘ by Shiv K. Kumar ; ‘Morning Walk ‘ , ‘In India ‘ and ‘Toast ‘ by Nissim Ezekiel ; ‘District Law Courts ‘ , ‘Pestilence in 19th Century Calcutta ‘ by Keki N. Daruwala ; and ‘Gandhi At A cross Road ‘ by I.K. Sharma are some singular verse forms that are mingled with Indian esthesias, imaginativeness, symbols and protest in peculiar.


The voices of protest have expanded its skyline by cutting across the lingual barriers and assorted motions like Dalit motion in Maharashtra and Gujrat, Bhooki Peedi Andolan in Bengal and Bandaya motion in Karnataka articulated a soundless hurting of ‘a subdivision of our people relegated to the underside of the societal hierarchy for more than 30 centuries ‘ and laid the foundation rock of protest in their native linguistic communications. Namdeo Dhasal and Bhujang Meshram pioneered Dalit motions of poesy in Maharastra, Malay Roy Chaudhry led Hungrialist Movement in Bengali linguistic communication ( launched by what is known as the Hungryalist four i.e. Shakti Chattopadhyay, Malay Roy Choudhury, Samir Roy Chaoudhury and Debi Roy ) , Siddhilinghaiah led Dalit -Bandaya motion in Kannada Literature and Pash, a Punjabi progressive poet took lead in protest poesy in Punjabi Literature. These poets even paid heavy monetary value for composing poesy of protest. But these poets accordingly succeeded in presenting their message and seeding the seeds of protest in their reader ‘s bosom.

In recent old ages, the voice of protest is turning louder after the slaughter in communal public violences on the destruction of Babri Maszid, and the barbarous slaughters in Gujrat in 2003 and the unmerciful violent deaths in Kashmir and other parts of the state in assorted terrorist onslaughts. One Hundred Poems for Peace is a important anthology of verse forms written by adolescents showing desperation and choler, fright and sorrow, hope and compassion and even protest. One can non but marvel at such look fumed with protest.

My Rangan tree

Has explosion into flower.

The ruby sight

Moves me to cryings.

They remind me

Of blood-spattered Gujarat.

When ruddy is

Splashed all around me

I may ne’er

Think of love once more. ( Katyal 2 )

At the stopping point, Rajeev S. Patke ‘s remark mentioning Karl Marx in footings of India may be quoted once more:

Karl Marx wrote in ‘The future consequences of British Rule in India ‘ ( 1853 ) : ‘England has to carry through a dual mission in Indian ; one destructive, the other regenerating-the obliteration of old Asian society and lying morning the stuff foundation of Western Society in Asia ‘ . Marx referred to the consequence of colonisation on the economic base of India but Asiatic intellectuals like Raja Ram Mohan Ray hoped for a more comprehensive transmutation of society and civilization. ( 58 )

The hopes and dreams of Karl Marx and Ram Mohan Roy have been materialized in the present context because English has gripped tightly the foundation of India and has become powerful medium of look every bit good as flourished, nourished and advanced with Indian society and civilization and in conclusion succeeded in voicing the strivings, pleasances and protest of Indian head and bosom in verse-form.