Milk And Dairy Industry Uk Economics Essay

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TheA country of Great Britain and Northern IrelandA ( normally known as theA United Kingdom ) is the autonomous stateA located near northwest seashore ofA Continental Europe. It is anA island countryA crossing with anA archipelago, accumulated with the northeast portion ofA Ireland, and many little islands.A Northern IrelandA is the lone portion of the UKA with a land boundary line, sharing it with theA Republic of Ireland.A Apart from this land boundary line, the UK is surrounded by theA Atlantic Ocean, theA North Sea, the English ChannelA and theA Irish Sea. The largest island, Great Britain, is linked toA FranceA by theA Channel Tunnel. ( Wikipedia )


The United Kingdom is aA constitutional monarchyA andA unitary stateA dwelling of fourA states: A England, A Northern Ireland, A ScotlandA and Wales.A It is governed by aA parliamentary systemA with itsA place of governmentA inA London, theA capital, but with three differentA national disposals inA Belfast, A CardiffA andA Edinburgh, the capitals of Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland severally.


The UK is aA developed state, with the world’sA sixth largest economyA by nominalA GDPA and theA 7th largestA inA buying power parity.A It was the universe ‘s firstA industrializedA countryA and the world’sA foremost powerA during the 19th and early twentieth centuries, A but the economic cost of two universe wars and the diminution of its imperium in the latter half of the twentieth century diminished its prima function in planetary personal businesss. The UK nevertheless remains aA major powerA with strong economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence. It is aA atomic powerA and has the 4th highestA defenseA in the universe. It is aA Member StateA of theA European Union, holds a lasting place on theA United Nations Security Council, and is a member of theA Commonwealth of Nations, A G8, A OECD, A NATO, and theA World Trade Organization. ( Wikipedia )

The Dairy industry contributes ?6.8 Billion which is about 10 % of GB GDP.A The part has been steadily lifting over many old ages. The industry contains many different specialist sub-sectors and, progressively, alterations in engineering have led to alterations in the nature of occupations within the industry. The tendency towards fewer, more skilled and better-paid employees, necessitates a important farther investing in instruction and preparation.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland


Royal coat of weaponries

Anthem: A ” God Save the Queen ” [ 1 ]

The United Kingdom ( dark viridity ) shown in relation to the European UnionA ( light viridity ) and other countries ofA Europe ( dark Grey )


( and largest metropolis )


51A°30aˆ?NA 0A°7aˆ?W

Official linguistic communications

EnglishA ( de facto )

Recognized regionalA linguistic communications

Irish, A Ulster Scots, A Scottish GaelicA , A Scots, A Welsh, Cornish




The dairy industry represents around 18 % of the gross agricultural end product of the UK, and dairy husbandmans are an of import and ample portion of the National Farmers Union NFU ‘s farming rank. Dairy husbandmans have endured hard times in recent old ages, notably with respect to farm gate profitableness. Soaring monetary values on the universe dairy trade good markets in 2007 resulted in rises in farm gate monetary values, numbering an mean addition of 8ppl by the fall. This has created optimism in the dairy industry and allowed most husbandmans to get down interrupting into a net income. However, there are 10 old ages of underinvestment and debt to do up for and husbandmans now need a sustained period of higher monetary values to enable some long-overdue investings in their concerns. While the mentality of the British dairy industry is loosely positive, the assurance of dairy husbandmans remains delicate. Production costs have risen massively in the last 12 months. Higher provender, fertiliser and fuel costs are gnawing the benefits of higher monetary values. In add-on to this are the significant substructure costs that dairy husbandmans face under the proposed alterations to the NVZ ( Nitrate Vulnerable Zones ) Action Program. With these issues in head, this papers provides a background briefing to the dairy agriculture sector and looks at the hereafter challenges and chances.

Britain ‘s Dairy Farmers

Dairy husbandmans in the UK are amongst the largest and most competitory in the European Union. Dairy farms are situated across the UK, but are concentrated largely in countries where the clime encourages favourable conditions for grassland agriculture. In recent old ages milk production has gravitated towards the West and South West of England, West Wales and Northern Ireland. The figure of dairy husbandmans in the UK has fallen dramatically, and continues to worsen. In 2001 there were 26,110 registered production retentions in England and Wales. By February 2009 this had fallen to 12,465. This figure represents a 5 % autumn on February 2008 figures, and hence reflects the go oning form of diminution. Until late, for every husbandman go forthing the industry another husbandman was willing to spread out. Consequently, the mean size of dairy herds in the UK has increased from 72 cattles in 1999 to 95 in 2010. At the same clip, familial and direction betterments in dairy cowss have seen the mean cow addition milk

production from 5,000 liters a twelvemonth in 1993 to 9609 litres in 2011. In recent old ages nevertheless, the industry has seen a lessening in production, proposing that either larger milk bring forthing herds are go forthing or the figure of herds spread outing has decreased. ( Wikipedia, The )

A Brief History of the British Dairy Industry

Since the 1920s- 1994, the market for natural milk was managed by four statutory milk selling boards ( MMBs ) . One Board bought and sold all sweeping milk from farms in England and Wales. The MMBs were wound-up in the early 1990s leting bing husbandmans to sell milk either to new husbandman co-operatives created in their topographic point or straight to dairy processing companies. The cooperative, Milk Marque, was created for agent milk gross revenues in England and Wales.

In the early yearss following the abolishment of the Boards, dairy husbandmans enjoyed a comparatively comfortable clip as milk monetary values had increased to 27 pence per liter ( ppl ) . However, the rise in milk monetary value coincided with a alone set of economic fortunes driven by ‘Black Wednesday ‘ and the UK drawing out of the Exchange Rate Mechanism, which devalued the Pound against major EU currencies that had increased the value of EU market support and the fight of UK dairy green goods. Monetary values started to skid in 1998/9 and more and more manufacturers opted to go forth Milk Marque to provide dairy companies straight who offered a higher monetary value as an inducement to fall in. Around the same clip, a legal instance was brought against Milk Marque by milk processors through the so Dairy Trades Federation, who argued that MM was runing as a complex monopoly and was mistreating its dominant place in the natural milk market. In 1999, the Monopolies and Mergers Commission produced a study back uping the instance brought to the Office of Fair trading by the DTF. The consequence of this instance led to the break-up of Milk Marque. In its topographic point, three girl co-ops – Milk Link, Axis and Zenith were set up in 2000. In recent old ages these concerns have consolidated, Axis brands unifying with Scots Milk trade names to organize First Milk and Zenith with a little milk cooperative, the Milk Group to organize Dairy Farmers of Britain.

The Dairy Industry in modern times

The dairy industry had seen singular consolidation at all degrees in the last decennary. While there were over 100 milk purchasers in the state, six big dairy companies dominate the GB market. The largest dairy companies are:

Dairy Crest – The Company buys about 2.4 billion liters every twelvemonth from 1,400 direct providing dairy husbandmans, the bulk of whom are located in southern, cardinal England and South Wales ( every bit good as some milk brokered from milk co-operatives, particularly FirstMilk ) . Dairy Crest manufactures liquid milk and a scope of dairy merchandises, including cheese, milk pulverization, sweets, butter, and pick. Its best known trade names are Cathedral City and Country Life.

Arla Foods -Swedish/ Danish husbandmans ‘ co-operative of approx 9,400 members, runing as a wholly-owned subordinate in the UK. The company focuses on providing fresh milk to retail merchants every bit good as pull offing dairy imports from Scandinavia and New Zealand. UK has a work force of 6,300 and processes 2.3 billion litres milk at 13 workss, supplied largely by the Arla Foods Milk Partnership, a husbandman group of around 1,600 members.

Dairy Farmers of Britain – Farmer co-operative with around 2,600 husbandman members, predominately located in the North of England and Wales. DFB makes a wide scope of merchandises including liquid milk, cheese, butter, ingredients and sweets, both for supermarkets and ain trade name. DFB besides supplies milk to other dairy companies and tallies eight separate processing sites and 60 distribution terminals.

Robert Wiseman Dairies – Private dairy company that specializes in treating and presenting fresh liquid milk throughout Great Britain. It operates from 6 major treating dairies in Aberdeen, East Kilbride, Glasgow, Manchester and Droitwich Spa and a new dairy in Bridgwater, Somerset. The company has developed relationships with a figure of major supermarket groups, ensuing in more than 70 % of its gross revenues to multiple retail merchants.

Milk Link – Farmer co-operative basically doing cheese, ingredients and sweets. Milk Link supplies all the UK ‘s major nutrient retail merchants, many of its largest nutrient processors, and nutrient services organisations. It is the UK ‘s largest cheese manufacturer, with the majority of its members being located in the South and South West of England.

First Milk – Farmer-owned concern, with 2600 husbandman members, formed in 2001, from the amalgamation of two taking dairy groups. Equally good as providing other dairy companies ( notably Robert Wiseman Dairies in which it has a 15 % interest and Dairy Crest ) with milk, the company owns creameries in Cumbria, West Wales and the Scots islands. There are besides a big figure of little to medium sized local or specialist processors such as Lactalis/ McLelland, Belton cheese, J Heler, Muller Dairies, Fresh ways, Medina Dairies and a little figure of milk purchasers that operate mostly as mediators, providing milk to a scope of different markets.

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The Current Dairy Market- The UK

The British dairy market is observed as a domestic market. The UK is about 90 % self-sufficing in milk and dairy green goods and half of all natural milk is sold as fresh liquid milk. In the yesteryear, much of this would hold been sold on doorsill unit of ammunitions. Now the highest proportion is sold through major multiple retail merchants. Cheese takes up a farther 28 % of the market. Consumption of liquid milk had been worsening until late where statistics indicate stabilisation in ingestion, with increasing demand for low fat milks.

Use of milk by UK dairies 2010/11 ( million liters )

The concentration of the industry on liquid milk and failure to add value has had of import effects for British dairy farming. The industry has, to some extent, go more commoditized and struggled to capitalise on existent growing markets. It has besides seen the value of imports addition compared to the value of exports with recent appraisals that the shortage.


The undermentioned aims will be covered in the study in item:

To analyze the Milk production in U.K.

To analyze the grounds for diminution in milk production

Pricing factors for the industry

Challenges faced within the industry

To analyse the milk and its merchandises ingestion in the British households ( Via Survey Method )

Milk production in U.K.

Deliveries to dairies in the 2010/11 milk twelvemonth totaled 15,212 million liters. Adjusting this figure for the presence of a leap twelvemonth gives entire milk bringings of 16,176 million litres, the lowest cumulative figure since deregulating and around 500 million litres ( 4.2 % ) down on the five twelvemonth norm.

5 twelvemonth mean day-to-day 2010/11 mean day-to-day

Looking at mean day-to-day bringings by month shows the milk twelvemonth started off comparatively good with April bringings merely 0.9 million litres per twenty-four hours less than the five twelvemonth norm. This was a consequence of a mild spring promoting good grass growing and early bend out.

The three months from May to July were the wettest on record which was one of the factors that led milk bringings in July to fall to an norm of 35.4 million liters per twenty-four hours. That was three million litres per twenty-four hours ( 7.8 % ) lower than the norm for the month. This shortage decreased towards November with better conditions and monetary values.

However the consequence of the earlier hapless conditions on silage quality and lifting provender monetary values appears to hold impacted on milk bringings in the concluding four months of the milk twelvemonth with day-to-day bringings averaging 3.5 % lower than the five twelvemonth norm.

The UK dairy industry employs more than 23,800 across 600 workplaces nationally. It includes the operation of dairies and the industry of dairy merchandises, such as iceaˆ?cream. There are many wellaˆ?known companies, such as Yeo Valley Farms, Danone, Dairy Crest Ltd. , Unilever iceaˆ?cream and Wensleydale Dairy Products.

2009/10 2010/11 2011/12

Cardinal facts:

There are 23,800 people working in the dairy industry, of which:

87 % of the work force is in the operation of dairies and cheese 14 % in the industry of iceaˆ?cream

The industry represents 6 % of those employed in Great Britain ‘s nutrient and imbibe fabrication sector.

36 % of the work force is 45 old ages or older.

45 % of the current work force will be eligible for retirement within the following 20 old ages.

13 % of the work force has a grade or tantamount making


The highest making for much of the work force is GCSE classs Aaˆ?C ( 20 % ) or A Levels ( 13 % ) .

19 % of the work force has no makings.

Workforce statistics

Number of UK employees:


Number of UK employers:



76 % male

24 % female


92 % of the work force is white, 5 % Asian/British Asian and 3 % Black/Black British 2,300 migrator workers ( nonaˆ?UK subjects ) are estimated to be working in the industry


26 % of the work force is aged 16-30 old ages

14 % is 30-34 old ages

15 % is 35-39 old ages

13 % is 40-44 old ages

22 % is 45-49 old ages


7 % of the work force has some signifier of work limited disablement.

[ N.B. Data derived from Labour Force Survey, 2010 and Annual Business Inquiry, 2009. ]

Reasons for diminution in milk production

In most cases in the dairy industry, additions in production costs have offset/negated any efficiency additions made by spread outing manufacturers. More late, this logic has been tested as milk production has bit by bit fallen over the last 5 old ages. 2011 was an exceptionally bad twelvemonth due to the extra effects of hapless conditions on croping conditions and winter eatage quality. Accumulative production to March 2011 stood at merely 13,215 million litres, which was 2 % lower than last twelvemonth and represents a production figure non seen since the 1974/5 milk production twelvemonth. In add-on, in the 2010/11 milk production twelvemonth, the UK was a monolithic 986m litre ( 7 % ) under quota. Research suggests that the falling tendency of milk production in the UK will most surely continue in the short term. The low degree of assurance has led to decreases in manufacturer Numberss and a decrease in the figure of husbandmans willing and able to spread out farther. Coupled with this, the industry has suffered many old ages of underinvestment due to a sustained period of low milk monetary value. In visible radiation of the challenges in front in the signifier of environmental ordinance, get bying with the impacts of disease and higher variable production costs it is likely that we will see farther contraction in the industry in the immediate hereafter. Recent monetary value additions have nevertheless brought some assurance back to some manufacturers in increasing milk production on their retentions. The 2010 Farmer Intentions Survey from

Dairy Co revealed that 37 % of dairy husbandmans intend to increase milk production, yet 7 % of dairy husbandmans intend to go out the industry in the following two old ages. This forecasted addition in production on some farms, coupled with a decrease in the figure of dairy husbandmans will ensue in a farther autumn in milk production by 2012/13 in Britain of 0.6 % .

Pricing factors for the industry

Milk pricing and profitableness are the biggest issues impacting dairy husbandmans. The mean farm gate milk monetary value for 2007 was 20.66 ppl with a February 2008 norm milk monetary value of 25.62 ppl. This reflects a much needed 8ppl addition on the mean farm gate monetary value of merely 18ppl in 2006 which has increased drastically in 2011/12 by 48ppl. Since the mid 1990s, the industry has seen a general diminution in dairy farm profitableness and monolithic restructuring has taken topographic point at farm degree. To get by with

Low Monetary values, husbandmans have sought efficiency additions to stay profitable mostly through increasing herd size and film editing costs where executable. In the yesteryear a combination of factors has driven farm gate milk monetary values including:

– Monetary values for internationally traded trade good dairy merchandises

– Europium market support

– Exchange rates

– The balance between the supply of natural milk and the degree of demand for milk merchandises

– Weak dialogue, due to construction of industry

– The costs of fabricating milk

EU and universe trade good markets have been seen historically as the biggest driver in natural milk monetary values. They are still influential and are the biggest ground behind the good documented additions in milk monetary values in the UK and elsewhere in 2011. However, the British dairy market is basically domestic, which should restrict the exposure to trade good market forces The British retail market for dairy merchandises is ferociously competitory. In regard of the cheese market, for illustration, regular tendering is the norm and with big measures of cheese imported from Ireland and other EU member provinces, there is ferocious competition to procure supply contracts.

Costss of Milk Production

It is notoriously hard to set up mean production costs, nevertheless over the last three old ages production costs have increased dramatically as a consequence of oil, fertiliser and feed monetary value additions and the intensifying cost of farm labour. The First Milk/Promar study of March 2009 suggests that the true cost of production for UK dairy husbandmans is estimated to lift to 36.64ppl in the following twelvemonth, non accounting for any net income border.

Challenges faced within the industry

Entree to raw stuff is cardinal to planetary place

Milk production is extremely regulated by quotas and mobility of natural stuff is hard

Raw milk is perishable and ca n’t be transported long distances

Milk production is disputing: no via medias on nutrient safety, labour intensive and milk is collected daily

Seasonality of production leads to overcapacity

Requires long term investings on farm and industry degree

Competitiveness of the dairy processors is progressively decisive for the pricing of natural stuff milk to husbandmans

Better ordinance and simplification

Defects are identified, but consequences are non satisfactory

Slow decision-making procedure

Lack of predictability

Horizontal ordinances refering provender, hygiene, claims and labelling

New ordinances for animate being public assistance and quality labelling?

Milk specific ordinance: imbibing milk, spreads and preserved milk

Path to market – Entree to universe market

Global participants include different geographical parts in their concern schemes, but SMEA?s have troubles in attack. Specific support mechanisms could be helpful

Industrial policy is made excessively much on footings of agricultural policy

Technical and healthful steps are barriers to merchandise: carnal disease eruptions, divergent analysis and trying methods, nothing tolerances, milk merchandises and carnal wellness criterions


Inventions have been and are indispensable in bettering the planetary fight of dairy industry and making value added merchandises

Inventions in the hereafter are more and more linked to the wellness and wellbeing of consumers. This means that more scientific grounds is needed for selling of these merchandises

EU should make and better platforms to back up such development in research. The Technology Platform on nutrient research, called “ Food for Life ” is a good illustration of such development and making scientific discipline based inventions

Claims are indispensable and needed for selling and consumer communicating of these new merchandises. This means that blessing of claims should non forestall or lag this development

European degree plans in scientific discipline and research ( 7th model plan ) are indispensable in hiking the science-based inventions in unfastened environment. Probiotic dairy merchandises are good illustrations of commercial success in this country

SMEA?s should hold easier entree to these plans

Environmental Challenges

Among the biggest challenges confronting UK dairy agriculture is how the industry interacts with the environment. The industry is working hard to guarantee that any environmental hazards associated with milk production are minimized and to present positive environmental betterments. Some noteworthy accomplishments include a 13.5 % decrease in methane emanations from farm animal since 1990 and a decrease in overall fertiliser use in dairy agriculture by 46 % since 1997. Over 35 % of farming area managed for dairy agriculture in the UK is now in an ELS environmental stewardship understanding. Action on farm is being co-ordinate through the Environmental Plan for Dairy Farming ( EPDF ) . The EPDF promotes integrated solutions to undertaking the sector ‘s environmental jobs, i.e. solutions that tackle more than one environmental issue and are easy for husbandmans to implement such as alimentary direction programs. In add-on to the EPDF, the development of an industry ‘Roadmap ‘ for the dairy sector in England identifies the environmental impacts of bring forthing and devouring milk across the supply concatenation and sets marks for extenuating and cut downing those impacts. Critically, the Roadmap promotes better apprehension of the societal, economic and environmental benefits of milk and aims to accomplish a balance between productiveness and environmental betterment, therefore procuring the long term sustainability of dairy farming.

Other Challenges

Animal wellness and public assistance continue to be high precedences for the dairy industry. The UK dairy industry adopts the highest criterions of carnal wellness and public assistance, monitored chiefly through the Assured Dairy Farms ( ADF ) strategy, of which 95 % of UK dairy husbandmans are registered. The England Cattle Health and Welfare Group ( ECHAWG ) besides provide a forum for the veterinary profession, husbandmans, industry organic structures and authorities to work together to undertake wellness and public assistance issues such as Johne ‘s Disease, mastitis, limping, bovid Tuberculosis, an progressively serious issue for many dairy husbandmans and, most late, Bluetongue.


Analysis via study method to observe the rise and autumn in the ingestion of milk and its merchandises!

This analysis was carried frontward by utilizing the study method thereby using the inquiries given in the signifier of a questionnaire to measure the participants on the entire ingestion of the milk and its merchandises in the United Kingdom. A sample of 50 participants was drawn from the population for farther analysis. A sample figure of the questionnaire is given below-

The process of the experiment that adopted the study method as a agency of making its finish has drew the undermentioned findings.

Harmonizing to the study, 38 % of the person ‘s preferred foremost milk as a trade name over other milk trade names and least no of people preferable milk nexus as a trade name. This difference between the penchants must hold existed due to pricing of the merchandises, its quality, advertisement and its handiness.

Another interesting fact that emerged was penchants of persons for taking the type of milk and it was found out that 42 % of people preferable whole milk over other milk types followed by least penchant for skimmed milk with merely 24 % . This difference evidently existed due to choice difference and gustatory sensations of the milk types.

Another fact that was found out was single ‘s penchants for powdery and bottled milk that showed a positive per centum for bottled milk with 78 % and really small penchant for powdery milk. This must be existing due to choice grounds of the milk and the freshness ( preservatives vs. fresh milk ) .

The terminal portion of the study dealt with the household penchants for milk ingestion in the UK. It was noticed that maximal no of persons purchased the milk on alternate footing ensuing in 46 % from the sum.

And the Numberss of persons devouring milk within the households are besides ranked every bit high as 42 % which reflected that all of the household members drink milk and its merchandises about on day-to-day footing.

It was interesting to observe that most of the persons went by the monetary value of the milk compared to the quality of milk which meant that they normally compromised over the quality over the monetary value thereby ensuing in additions for companies that provided milk at a cheaper cost compared to others.

Last it was asked as to which merchandise of milk apart from its pure signifier was preferred the most and it was noticed that 46 % of the British households preferred cheese merchandise of milk and least preferred the butter 12 % which shows the British penchant of dairy merchandises depending on their culinary arts and dishes made in their places.

By the terminal of study eventually it was found that most of the persons preferred milk as an indispensable food for their day-to-day breakfast demands ( 64 % ) compared to any other repast of the twenty-four hours which reflects the energy beginning and dietetic addendums provided by the milk maximise the most over other nutrient addendums.



aˆ? Know your cost of production and Add value by maximising your contract.

aˆ? Make usage of the NFU ‘s inputs proctor and challenge providers to seek out best trades.

aˆ? Offer husbandmans proper milk contracts, in line with the NFU templet, that provide long term stableness and transparence on footings and monetary value.

aˆ? Be crystalline about costs, markets and milk monetary values. Show how you are bettering efficiency and film editing costs at the mill.

aˆ? Promote the Red Tractor conspicuously, on forepart of battalion, on all branded dairy merchandises.


aˆ? Food service sector to widen committednesss to sourcing assured, British merchandises to all dairy merchandises and advance the Red Tractor to clients.

aˆ? All major retail merchants to increase the figure of British, Farm Assured dairy merchandise lines offered to consumers.

aˆ? Retailers to advance the Red Tractor conspicuously, on forepart of battalion, on all ain label dairy merchandises.

aˆ? Retailers to set up direct, dedicated relationships with dairy husbandmans providing British, ain label cheese lines.


aˆ? All authorities sections to follow the NFU theoretical account clause and stipulate usage of Red Tractor in its procurance contracts.

aˆ? Establish a milk production taskforce to analyze the grounds behind, and the solutions to, our falling milk production tendency.

aˆ? Make husbandmans cognizant of the support and support watercourses that are available to them through the RDPE. RDAs to guarantee that these financess are easy accessible.


aˆ? Banks to honour long term, established relationships with clients. Base on balls on base rate cuts in full and support husbandmans – including renters – to put for the hereafter.


aˆ? Maintain the call for an independent organic structure to take the political relations out of carnal disease and defy any effort by Defra to reassign costs onto the industry.

aˆ? Continue lobbying to better milk contracts offered to husbandmans by milk purchasers.

aˆ? Maintain examination on input costs to guarantee that alterations in monetary values are being passed down to husbandmans.

aˆ? Lead a positive run to advance the benefits of dairy agriculture and the importance of productive British agribusiness.


The mentality for the British dairy industry is loosely positive. Despite the incontrovertible force per unit areas that husbandmans continue to face, the hereafter chances for British dairy husbandmans is bright. Milk manufacturers are efficient and operate in a comfortable, well-populated state, with strong traditions of devouring dairy merchandises. Demand for many dairy merchandises, worldwide, is increasing as a consequence of economic and population growing. Climatic factors appear to be nail downing production in traditional export countries and the EU may be good placed to capitalise on universe market growing in the long tally. But at that place remain many important short-run challenges.