The Vietnam ‘s committednesss when fall ining the WTO stated that duty of the whole vehicle by 2018 would bit by bit cut down to 5 % , the current duty is 83 % . The current mean duty of CKD parts is 18 % ( Trinh, etc. 2007 ) . From January 1, 2009, the Viet Nam officially opened auto and bike markets, and let foreign-funded endeavors to put up car or bike gross revenues companies. In add-on, in 2010, Vietnam ‘s Ministry of Finance issued a notice to take down the import responsibilities on some car theoretical accounts. Among them, the import responsibilities on gasoline-fueled 2.5 liter four-wheel thrust vehicles with less than nine-seat decreased from 83 % to 80 % and that of others turned to 77 % ( ETCN, 2010 ) .
Taking one with another, as the car undertakings require big investings, Vietnam authorities did non carry on a substantial long-run investing, and chiefly relied on foreign-funded endeavors to speed up the betterment of national car industry. In assorted joint ventures, Vietnam authorities possessed 30 % portions with the land use rights, and the engineering and equipment assets of foreign endeavor accounted for the other 70 % of the portions. The recent policy of Vietnam authorities tends to promote local CKD production, domestic parts production and limitation by high duties on vehicle imports. Vietnam authorities actively supports the production of energy-efficient small-displacement autos, agricultural vehicles and particular vehicles required by national production such as mineral extraction, building, waste disposal, etc.
To better the localisation rate of automotive production, the Vietnamese authorities has introduced a series of steps, including the low-interest loans for domestic endeavors and discriminatory revenue enhancement policies, replacing the original revenue enhancement coverage on the import of CKD on the footing of the import revenue enhancement rates of different parts, suggesting discriminatory mechanism refering fabricating undertakings of car engine, gear box, transmittal, particular vehicles and ordinary autos. So as to endeavor to raise the per centum of home-made to 35 % -40 % and export car nomadic parts to neighbour states and parts in 2010 ( Huong Ly, 2010 ) . However, at present, the policy of bettering localisation rate of auto has achieved so small that joint ventures and the import of vehicles and parts are still the chief signifiers in the car industry. Main point of policies in the car industry can be list as follows:
Deregulation of the foreign investing ;
Published in 2010 under the Vietnam car industry development scheme, the authorities will no longer O.K. the constitution of new foreign investing in Vietnam assembly works in order to back up and develop its car industry but promote the cooperation and joint ventures between foreign investing and Vietnam companies, trusting that foreign investing participate in the restructuring of state-owned car makers. It is contributing to present foreign investing and advance the development of Vietnam ‘s car industry.
Tax grants ;
For the joint venture corporations with Vietnamese companies, ordinances of authorities guarantee their precedence over land use, H2O and power. Besides the revenue enhancement grants province that the endeavors can relieve from income revenue enhancement in the first two old ages and in the following four old ages the income revenue enhancement will be reduced by half ( Huyen, 2010 ) . Income revenue enhancement rate is 25 % , while income revenue enhancement rate of native endeavors is 33 % . In add-on, if the export of merchandises reaches 80 % , the export revenue enhancement rate will be 10 % and the import of production equipment and natural stuffs will be free from responsibility ( Kenichi Ohno, 2004 ) . Besides, the authorities has allowed endeavors to import 50 % of all constituents abroad every bit good. Tax incentives both reduces the production costs and increases the market fight of endeavors, therefore it is more contributing and attractive to the debut of foreign capital ( Quach, 2004 ) .
Better the official efficiency.
To recognize official efficiency by accurate, speedy and best service, the authorities simplifies some processs, and establishes particular investing services organisations to supply relevant services straight to foreign-invested endeavors. Meanwhile, foreign-invested endeavors can come in into the Vietnam Investment Capital market, adjust the investing environment and heighten the operating efficiency of endeavors more rapidly and easy.
As the economic system growing rate supports on an norm of 7 % – 8 % yearly, the building of Vietnam ‘s domestic substructures are in full swing, such as main roads, railroads, ports and terminuss, airdromes and metropolis installations. In February 2009, the authorities puting 55.7 billion U.S. dollars decided to construct the high velocity railroad which the full length is 1,555 kilometer from Hanoi to Ho Chi Minh City, and it is expected to be completed in 2035. In add-on, Viet Nam smartly develops the ship building industry, in order to be the universe ‘s 4th largest shipbuilding state by 2015, but at present, about all ship building steel should be imported overseas.
Now automotive steel chiefly imports from Japan and Korea and harmonizing to Vietnam ‘s development planning, in the recent 10 old ages from 2011 to 2020, Vietnam ‘s mean growing rate of entire vehicle is 8 % .
From 2007 to 2025, Vietnam will put in six major steel undertakings: Ha Tinh steel works ( capacity of 4.5 million dozenss per twelvemonth ) , Rong orange steel works ( capacity of 5 million dozenss per twelvemonth ) , 1.2 million dozenss Cold Rolled works and 3 million dozenss Hot Rolling works invested by South Korea ‘s Pohang Iron and Steel Company in Vietnam Namba – Vung Tau state, 200 dozenss per twelvemonth high-wire production works invested by India ESSA, 1.5 million dozenss per twelvemonth Old Streets steel works and the Expansion Project of Taiyuan Iron and Steel Plant. Therefore, theoretically there will be adequate automotive steel to guarantee the native car industry.
In 2009, in malice of the planetary economic slack, the entire Automobile gross revenues, incorporating domestic-manufactured and imported cars, make a new record of about 200,000 units on the domestic market, giving a great encouragement to Vietnamese car manufacturers. The 16 members of Vietnam Automobile Manufacturers Association ( VAMA ) sold 119,460 units in 2009, 7 % more than in 2008 ( VBN, 2010 ) .
The mean age of Vietnamese is under 25 old ages old, in that societal load is lighter than other developing states. With the betterments of route conditions and lodging building, the bing 17 million bike consumers will quickly turn to devouring automobiles.A Vietnam is one of the fastest developing states in the universe with a extremely possible emerging market.
With mention to the anticipation in Industrial Policy and Strategy Report made by Vietnamese Ministry of Industry, the demand of Vietnam ‘s car market will be 256,000 units per twelvemonth in 2010. Harmonizing to prognosiss of Vietnamese Ministry of Transport, in 2010 the entire figure of vehicles take parting in circulation will make 129 million units, including 310,000 autos, 360 000 of all sorts of managers, 620,000 car trucks and by 2020 the entire demand will make 2.8 million units.
Harmonizing to the urban traffic development program of Vietnamese Government, Vietnam yearly needs to buy 35,000 coachs for serving all sorts of urban public traffic system from 2005 to 2010. In a period of economic development, Vietnam has a greater demand for big tunnage heavy-duty dump truck, technology vehicles, tractors, container vehicles and farm vehicles which use the metropoliss and transit substructure building. The big luxury managers, moderate-sized rider autos and mini – coachs suited for usage of little metropoliss and towns bit by bit become a new market demands. The Vietnamese authorities is taking steps to restrict the bike licence bit by bit, which may hold the indirect stimulation in richest households who buy autos and mini-vans.
Located in the eastern portion of indo-china peninsula with more than 3,200 kilometer of coastline, Vietnam is in the of import international traffic online. It has more than half of the state in coastal of the 53 states. So it has the obvious advantage of the seashore. Vietnam owns many coastal seaports and the land straight to other states in Indochina is really convenient. It has opened 23 international paths which through the 19 states and parts of the capital or metropolis in the universe. Due to the strategic location of the Vietnam, it has been provided many favourable conditions, such as developing the foreign economic, absorbing foreign investing, developing economic and trade cooperation every bit good as advantages on air power, maritime, touristry.
Standard and the work application peculiarly for the compulsory criterions promulgated by sections of Vietnamese authorities is comparatively bit-by-bit and the execution is less effectual, hence the consequence of direction based on the criterion left much to be desired.
From the facet of engineering transportation and preparation, foreign-funded endeavors tends to remain in the low degree of CKD1 and CKD2, and preparation is merely to accommodate to the demands of automotive assembly procedure ( Thuy, 2008 ) . Refering the usage of natural stuffs, in add-on to some simple procedure of single constituents and parts, chief natural stuffs for car assembly are selected and purchased from a parent or parent ‘s spouses.
On history of Vietnamese hapless domestic production, even some natural stuffs used for the industry of parts, such as steel home base or profiles have to be imported from abroad. The chief undertaking of auto assembly companies is to keep and mend due to its hapless mills, engineering, and equipment. The jobs refering engineering include three points as follows:
First, the scientific research is excessively weak, and metallurgy, new stuffs, electronics, chemical, kinetic, mechanical and other industries back uping the automotive industry developed easy, in that merely the auto human body and car tyres can be green goodss natively, while the chief constituents are still dependent on import ; The second is a deficiency of senior proficient staff in general, and R & A ; D is about empty, long-run attempt is needed to run into the demand ; Third, the dawdling after-sale service lead to unimpressive market research and information aggregation.
Harmonizing to proficient preparation, research and development and environmental protection, at present, the automobile machinery workss in Vietnam expedite investing on the more production of autos and trim parts, with the consequence that the labour resource is already serious deficit, particularly for applied scientists and senior technicians and other proficient workers. There are three native developing mechanisms available in Vietnam: A
( 1 ) Six universities with the major of car mechanics developing professional applied scientists ;
( 2 ) 300 colleges developing 1000s of professional technicians and workers, but more limited degree ;
( 3 ) Training schools educating common workers to be skilled in proficient. The joint venture company besides absorbed the big figure of Vietnamese proficient cells to be appointed after preparation, but by and large talking the overall proficient instruction is non hapless.
Recommendations and drumhead
In brief, the Vietnamese auto market is little ; machinery fabrication industry is weak, and automotive subsidiary industry is about nothing. On these evidences, there are four recommendations proposed below:
Carry out active exchanges and strengthen force to develop farther. Trade publicity activities and Vietnam-related car exhibitions are worthwhile to take part with specific marks ;
Focus on quality alternatively of under dumping. Under dumping may take to barbarous competition and monetary value competition will non merely cut down corporate net incomes straight, but besides affect the company ‘s image. And the car company needs to beef up communicating and coordination with relevant sections so as to do appropriate export schemes harmonizing to the existent demands of the Vietnamese market ;
Better the selling system and the after-sales service. Based on the high-quality and low cost, adequate service forces are needed in Distribution Offices to enable the Vietnamese consumers to confer with at easiness ;
Invest in Vietnam to set up joint ventures, get or reconstitute bing motor vehicles and parts of Vietnamese companies. Since Vietnam introduced a series of discriminatory localisation, prevailing merchandises may seek joint venture spouses to bring forth locally.