No human can defy the enticement of name. The characters in Henrik Ibsen ‘s Ghosts and Anton Chekhov ‘s The Cherry Orchard are no different. Set in the late nineteenth century, both dramas depict the battle to make the top of the societal pyramid in societies wherein rank is of extreme importance. While Regina, the immature maid-servant of a high-level Norse household yearns to go forth behind her servant position in Ghosts, Dunyasha, the amah in a house of blue bloods, seeks to fall in the emerging businessperson after the abolishment of serfhood in Russia. This yearning is portrayed chiefly through characters ‘ address and actions, and symbolism. The illustration of the two characters ‘ aspirations non merely helps to research cardinal subjects, conveying out characters and convey symbols in the dramas, but besides provides an penetration into the societies of the clip.

The audience gleans their first feeling of Dunyasha from Lopakhin ‘s reaction to her lady-like behavior. His admonitory “ You ought non to make it ; you ought to retrieve your topographic point. ”[ 1 ]introduces the cardinal subject of altering societal position. The fact that Dunyasha has forgotten her topographic point is the first indicant of the monolithic alteration that has gripped Russian society, both in the drama and the existent universe at the clip that the drama was written. This is emphasized when Dunyasha enthusiastically greets Anya, handling her as a friend instead than a kept woman, but Anya is contemptuous. Dunyasha, for all her edification, is still a retainer in the eyes of this blue blood. The maid-servant ‘s changeless mentions to her matrimony proposal tell the audience of the regard that a matrimony proposal brings in Russian civilization. From her first visual aspect to her issue, Dunyasha invariably reiterates her ain polish. In the first act, she says, “ My custodies are trembling, I feel rather swoon. ”[ 2 ]. At the stopping point of the drama, she reminds the audience that she is “ a delicate animal ”[ 3 ]. Chekhov therefore uses the technique of repeat to underline the subjects of societal position and alteration. Her engagement in the dance reflects the disappearing of societal barriers in post-emancipation Russia. Firs ‘ observes, “ In the old yearss it was generals and barons and admirals that danced at our dances ”[ 4 ]. Like Lopakhin ‘s remark, Firs ‘ baleful warning to Dunyasha that she will “ come to a bad terminal. ”[ 5 ]serves as a reminder that there were groups of people in the society of the clip who opposed the alteration. Lopakhin ‘s advice to Dunyasha exposes his lip service since he, like Dunyasha, has late risen in category. Firs is characterized by his remark as a individual who is stuck in the old manner of life. The clang between the past and present civilizations in Chekhov ‘s Russia is mirrored in his drama. The behavior expected of a amah, as opposed to a civilized immature adult female, in 19th century Russia is besides conveyed. Freedom, a minor subject, is touched upon in Dunyasha ‘s remark, “ What felicity it must be to populate abroad! ”[ 6 ]. This sentiment shows that, to Dunyasha, populating abroad would intend true release from the barriers of category. With this, the dramatist reminds the audience of the freedom that the lower categories can look frontward to after emancipation.

Similar subjects are explored in Ghosts, with societal standing being presented in the really first act. Regina ‘s attitude towards her ain male parent stresses the importance of position in Norse society. Although she herself is a retainer, she is utterly disrespectful towards her lower-class male parent. The disdain with which this society looks upon a low-class individual is revealed. On the other manus, Regina is really remorseful with Mrs. Alving, inquiring “ in a low and hesitant voice ”[ 7 ]if she may sit with her and Oswald. The centrality of rank to Norse civilization is portrayed in Mr. Manders ‘ aghast reaction to Regina imbibing bubbly with Mrs. Alving and Oswald. Regina ‘s attending to visual aspects foremost brings out the subject of maintaining up a good external image, as does Regina ‘s false “ expression of pleased surprise ”[ 8 ]at Mr. Manders ‘ reaching. Her resentful “ You might every bit good hold brought me up as a gentleman ‘s girl ; it would hold been more suited ”[ 9 ]high spots this subject excessively and conveys the value attached to a proper upbringing in Norway. Oswald recognizes this facet of Regina ‘s character and chooses her to euthanize him ; he calls her aspiration “ the joy of life ”[ 10 ], therefore presenting another subject in the drama. Regina herself touches upon this, mentioning it as a ground for go forthing the Alvings before she finds “ herself out in the cold ”[ 11 ]. Regina ‘s metaphor implies that she means to prosecute bigger and better things than caring for an invalid. This somewhat vague subject is similar to the subject of freedom in The Cherry Orchard as it holds different significances for each of the characters.

Dunyasha ‘s changeless mentions to her ain edification aid in conveying out her amour propre and huge yearning to go portion of the upper category. This is seen in her speech- ” I have grown so refined, so delicate and genteel, ”[ 12 ]– and her actions- ” She looks at herself in a hand-glass and pulverizations her face. ”[ 13 ]Dunyasha points out to Epikhodof, “ That ‘s a guitar, non a mandolin. ”[ 14 ]Her condescending rectification of Epikhodof shows her to be rather knowing, and high spots her feeling of high quality over a clerk, one time once more proposing the thought of societal reform. Dunyasha ‘s unfastened esteem of Yasha and his ability to “ speak about anything ”[ 15 ]shows that, for all of her distinguished behavior, she is still impressed by person somewhat better educated than she is. The state of affairs is about amusing for an audience that is familiar with category divisions, as Yasha himself is merely a retainer, aerating expansive positions. Both Anya ‘s and Dunyasha ‘s behavior bring out the cultural facet of the alteration being as of yet uncomplete, for neither is able to to the full release the old ways.

Regina is seen as a selfish, detached miss, for her near-reverence of Oswald and Mrs. Alving turns rapidly to contempt when she leaves them with a flip of her caput and a mere “ Pooh! -good-bye. ”[ 16 ], although she is “ awfully unwilling to go forth Mrs. Alving ”[ 17 ]at the start of the drama. Her self-interest is reemphasized by her blunt refusal to remain with the Alvings and have on herself “ out looking after shut-ins. ”[ 18 ]Regina ‘s insouciant, “ Sailors have no savoir-vivre. ”[ 19 ], and her exclaiming of “ Heavens! ”[ 20 ]to the eating-house proposed by her male parent introduces her air of high quality in add-on to demoing the disdain with which society viewed crewmans and the societal stigma of being associated with them. Regina ‘s repeated usage of Gallic words portrays her as a self-educated and goaded adult female, as it is subsequently revealed that she hopes to travel to Paris. It besides conveys the captivation that anything foreign holds in Norse civilization. Regina ‘s changeless reminders to Mr. Manders to happen her a occupation underscore her finding to acquire in front in life. Unlike in The Cherry Orchard, it is chiefly Regina herself who is characterized through the portraiture of her aspirations, and other characters ‘ address and actions simply add to her character.

Dunyasha shortly comes to stand for the cabal of society that changes with the times, merely as other characters signify other groups in the neutering society. The scene that she is placed in at the beginning of act two, with “ the row of telegraph poles ”[ 21 ]“ in the distance ”[ 22 ]and “ the dim lineations of a large town ”[ 23 ]seeable in the background is symbolic of the coming alteration in society. The marks of industrialisation can be seen. As Dunyasha is portion of this alteration, she is placed in this scene. The sundown is symbolic of the terminal of the old traditions. The coming of industrialisation to Tsarist Russia and the interrupting down of the old cultural hierarchy is shown through the milieus, since the household portrayed in the drama is a microcosm of the universe outside.

Ibsen excessively uses symbolism to picture Regina ‘s longing to mount the societal ladder. The Orphanage is seen to typify different things for every character and the audience becomes cognizant of its significance for Regina when Engstrand observes that she is “ to look after kids in the new Home ”[ 24 ]. For Regina, the Orphanage is a stepping rock in her acclivity in society and Paris symbolizes her dreams and aspirations. It is seen to be her “ joy of life ”[ 25 ], or the freedom that she, like Dunyasha, looks frontward to. Her craving besides illustrates the glamourous position of Paris held in Norway.

Through the portraiture of these characters ‘ ascent in societal standing, the dramatists remark on the societies of the clip, as the desire to lift is a common 1 in both societies. The audience is able to place with both of these characters as they struggle to accomplish their end. The viewing audiences of the dramatists ‘ times could specifically see a typical member of their ain society in these characters. Small follies of humanity such as amour propre and aspiration are seen in the strong female characters and possibly audiences through the ages can even see a small spot of themselves in Regina and Dunyasha.