The purpose of this work is to analyze and reexamine the leading capablenesss of the chosen leader. The study is based on an analyse of the capablenesss supported by both relevant articles, theories and besides concern literature. The study is organised in the undermentioned manner ; In the first portion the writer gave the full background of the leader to bespeak events which influenced and even formed the characteristics of character. Next the work is directed to depict leading of the chosen character in the context of theories. The 3rd portion includes the description of capablenesss which are described to give the reader the full reappraisal of the results of leader ‘s work. Finally the study gives some decision in the visible radiation of public presentation of the chosen leader.
To depict capablenesss of leading we need to specify a individual. For that intent I chose Lech WaA‚A™sa the leader of “ SolidarnoA›A‡ ” – The National Trade Union Organisation established in August,1980 which gave the beginning to large alterations in Poland and Europe. Although at early 80 ‘s there was communist system of authorities in Poland after 40 old ages of dictatorship and absolutism of communist leaders, the demand of freedom was tremendous and Polish people desired to be free and unrecorded in democratic state. To do it existent they needed a leader with strong personality, descended from ordinary people, a individual who would be brave and determined to accomplish the end of free state. Lech WaA‚A™sa fulfilled this undertaking better than it was expected conveying freedom non merely for Poland but besides for other states in the east Europe.
The background of Lech WaA‚A™sa
Lech WaA‚A™sa was born on 29th September, 1943 in Popowo, Poland. His male parent BolesA‚aw was a carpenter and was respected in local community. He showed turning leader that people should esteem one another and cipher has the right to work another human existences. He rejected working for Nazi and was sentenced to work in a labor cantonment. The given illustration taught immature Lech that when we believe in something we should protect it and fight for it. Mother of Lech WaA‚A™sa came from comparatively hapless but respected household. She brought up kids in the spirit of nationalism and piousness. Lech WaA‚A™sa learned at vocational school and after completing it he was taken to the ground forces where he fulfilled the obligatory military service. In the ground forces he revealed his leading endowment as his squad performed really good. As the caput of the squad he was really demanding but besides showed his ability to work out jobs and motivate others. He was besides perceived as magnetic leader and was able to negociate with generals which was really hard at that times as totalitarian system did non let to negociate anything. Harmonizing to Burns ( 1978 ) magnetic leaders are those who have personal characteristics such as assurance, power and influence. Analysed character is perfect image of these three properties. Lech WaA‚A™sa is the individual who has strength to contend for what he believes and he besides has large influence over other people. In his life we may happen many illustrations of it. It is all about his oppositional activity. The existent beginning of his manner to go the leader of freedom was in 1968 when he motivated his co- workers to boycott official assemblage of admonishing the work stoppage of pupils.
As he was efficient in his actions two old ages subsequently he was offered to take the station of president of the Strike Committee. Lech WaA‚A™sa was strongly influenced by the events of 1970 when 39 workers died as the consequence of work stoppage actions, he swore himself that it would ne’er go on once more and started his battle for freedom. He worked for Free Trade Unions, where he organises meetings to learn shipyard workers about their rights, educate them and besides distributed belowground cusps. As was said at the beginning he was dedicated to contend for what he believed and to contend against totalitarian system.
At 70 ‘s Lech WaA‚A™sa was continuously contending for human rights, organised manifestations marking the victims of December 1970, laid garlands in forepart of the Shipyard gate and besides showed his negative attitude towards governments. That times were really harmful for him and his household as he was dismissed many times, lived under force per unit area of being checked, spied and besides repressed. In August 1980 he was one of the chief provokers of the work stoppage and during it he made his celebrated “ leap over the fencing ” . It was one of the most meaningful Acts of the Apostless of his activities. From that point Lech WaA‚A™sa was non merely a worker of the shipyard, he became an icon of Polish history. His dogged manner of dialogues, battle for posits, protagonism and trust from non merely all workers but besides the whole state of Poland went far towards constructing sense of societal coherence and solidarity of Polish people and eventually Free Independed Trade Union Solidarity was established. Many states all over the universe followed the events in Poland and Lech WaA‚A™sa became good known, respected and admired individual. The response from communist authorities in Poland was speedy and soldierly jurisprudence was introduced in December 1981. Lech WaA‚A™sa was one of the first who were taken to prison and he was interned for two old ages up to 1982. At that hard times many people lost their hope that they may win but he was the individual who ne’er gave up. He was the life symbol and spokesman of the thought of solidarity. His actions were admired all over the universe and he was awarded by Nobel Prize in 1983. At the terminal of 80 ‘s he started negociating with communist authorities at the Round Table. Prowess and courage of WaA‚A™sa, who was the leader of legateship of democratic resistance, led to compromise with communist governments. As all the alterations in Poland were exsanguine Poland became a phenomenon and illustration how to accomplish understanding in a peaceable manner. The consequence of all those dialogues was election and making the first democratic authorities on the eastern side of the Iron Curtain. In 1990 he was the first democratically elected president of Poland. While he was in office he was supposed to present many alterations in Polish economic system, cut down foreign debt and besides transform the political religion of Poland. He succeeded in backdown of Soviet ground forces from Poland, decrease of Polish debt and retrieving the paperss about KatyA„ slaughter. He ne’er forgot about workers despite being in office he supported them, suggested solutions and was ever ready to speak negotiate or argument about of import issues. After the old ages of being the president he remained the individual who represents Poland on the world-wide political sphere. In 1995 he established the Lech WaA‚A™sa Institute which mission is to back up democracy. Nowadays Lech WaA‚A™sa is the spokesman and propagator of solidarity going around the universe and showing the image of Poland as state which fought its freedom without force and unneeded bloodletting.
Lech WaA‚A™sa as a Leader in the context of Leadership Theories
The definition of leading is non stated clearly and evidently because it is a complex issue and many bookmans perceive leading in a different manner and analyze it organize different point of position get downing with general situational degree through leading in the group up to emotional facets of leading public presentation. Harmonizing to Lee B. Salz: “ Leadership is about holding the assurance to make what is right even when it is non popular. ” Such a definition brought up from analyzing many articles and books about leading by the writer. There are a figure of theories of leading. In this study they will non be described or analysed to the full nevertheless some of them are deserving adverting. Stodgil ( 1974 ) identified some of import traits and accomplishments that leaders should possess. Most of import are self assurance, being able to accommodate to state of affairs, diplomatic and tactful, decisive, reliable. Analyzing the life of Lech WaA‚A™sa we may happen all of these features- his diplomatic negotiations and ability to negociate were important to accomplish the end of freedom. The fact that he was decisive, trusty and reliable caused many people to follow him. Trait theory gave the beginning to another 1 named Behavioural Theory which states that: “ leaders can be made instead there are born. ” It was and hardship of Trait Theory which put innate characteristics before erudite 1s. Situational leading provinces that how leader acts depends on situational factors which determine the leader ‘s actions. Yukl ( 1989 ) identified six variables: Subordinate attempt, low-level ability and function lucidity, organisation of the work, cooperation and coherence, resources and back up external coordination. Lech WaA‚A™sa had tremendous motive to contend for what he believed every bit good as capableness of converting others to follow him every bit good as to work together in a group although he acts more on emotions than on fixed program. He was able to do the most of the handiness of tools, stuffs and people directing them to accomplish the end. Awareness of the necessity of coaction with other groups helped him to be really efficient.
Charismatic Leadership is about singular influence and it is connected with leaders who are alone, talented and even heroic ( Bass, 1990 ; Conger, 1989 ) . Harmonizing to Avolio & A ; Yammarino ( 2002 ) it is a sort of relationship between leaders and subsidiaries which involves “ alone bonding ” that is emotional bond, trust and regard. Howell & A ; Shamir ( 2005 ) stated that people who see the leader as charismatic will portion his or her vision and besides will be willing to give to accomplish the end and the vision of the leader. Is WaA‚A™sa magnetic leader? Under no fortunes – yes he is.
Conger & A ; Kanungo ( 1998 ) described five behavioral properties of Charismatic Leaders which are as follows: Vision and articulation – Lech WaA‚A™sa had a vision and articulated it clearly. Sensitivity to the environment and to the member ‘s needs- non merely as a leader but besides as the Man, WaA‚A™sa performed being sensitive to others. Personal hazard taking- signifier his life we may see that he is non a individual who would non take a hazard if he wanted to contend for what he believes. Finally executing unconventional behavior – his celebrated “ leap over the fencing ” was perceived as definitely unconventional but singular behavior. All the theories mentioned supra led to organize one of the most current leading theory – Transformational Leadership. The construct was introduced by James Burns ( 1978 ) and provinces that when there is a vision in the context of the hereafter developed, the leader is able to excite and change over the possible followings. What is more he put an accent of the fact that leading is non a set of specific behaviors but underlined the importance of ongoing procedure by which “ leaders and followings raise one another to higher degrees of morality and motive ” . Steven Covey supports this thought by stating: “ The end of transformational leading is to “ transform ” people and organisations in a actual sense – to alter them in head and bosom ; enlarge vision, penetration, and apprehension ; clarify intents ; do behaviour congruent with beliefs, rules, or values ; and convey about alterations that are lasting, self-perpetuating, and impulse edifice. ”
Is Lech WaA‚A™sa transformational leader? To reply this inquiry cardinal capablenesss of Lech WaA‚A™sa should be described.
Cardinal leading capablenesss of Lech WaA‚A™sa
As all the work forces leaders are non perfect. They have both positive and negative characteristics of their characters. The cardinal leading capablenesss of Lech WaA‚A™sa are described utilizing the distinction of positive and negative facets with mention to theory.
Harmonizing to Alexander W. Astin, Helen S. Astin. ( 2000 ) this quality is about consciousness of beliefs, attitudes, values which motivate others to want transmutation and alteration. Lech WaA‚A™sa was able to go through his vision down to other people, actuate them and do them contend for the lone sensible solution of stoping communism in Poland.
Charismatic leaders were named by Weber ( 1947 ) and the thought was developed subsequently by Burns ( 1978 ) who put this sort of leader to other three leading manners. As stated above, WaA‚A™sa has the characteristics of magnetic leader. He is capable to disregard traditional boundaries to convey the alteration. What is more he was perceived as leader from his earliest childhood. He says, “ I had something that made me the leader of the pack, ” he says. “ I was ever the leader of the category, I was ever the leader of the bullies, the leader of the choirboys. I was ever on top. ” Lech WaA‚A™sa was able to animate others, could organize the sort of ambiance that people saw a hero in him. But what is interesting, he was non a hero because of winning the conflict, salvaging person ‘s life or being a great politician. Lech WaA‚A™sa was a hero because of his tremendous capableness of conveying the hope, religion and bravery to ordinary people.
It is another manner of being the leader named by Burns ( 1978 ) .According to Burns radical leader is one who wants to convey a alteration every bit rapidly as possible. He requires committedness, support and forfeit from his followings. Polish people were ready to back up and take portion in actions which may convey freedom to them. WaA‚A™sa was able to convert them that by following him they would accomplish what they desired.
Motivation can be defined as a strong will or a thrust to win. It is one of the five dimensions of Emotional Intelligence by Goleman ( 1986 ) . Motivated leaders are seen as 1s who are determined to accomplish their end even in inauspicious fortunes. There were a batch of events which put a dark visible radiation of WaA‚A™sa ‘s beliefs and even deter his followings to go on the battle for freedom but despite them he ne’er gave in and worked difficult to warm up the spirit of battle in the state. He was extremely motivated to accomplish what he preached. What is more he preached optimism and had extremely developed communicating accomplishments which allowed him to pass on his vision to his followings.
Lech WaA‚A™sa is the sort of leader who was able to stimulate people. His tremendous strength was an ability to utilize simple words when he explained complex issues to countrymen. He was besides able to experience his audience and cognize what they want to hear so he played like an histrion on phase presenting his addresss off the turnup, utilizing both verbal and non verbal linguistic communication. His gestures and workss sometimes told more than the biggest words and they were understood clearly by all he spoke to.
It is one of the four dimensions of Emotional Intelligence described by Goleman ( 1996 ) . It is about understanding that emotions impact on the individual productiveness and the relationship with people. Leaderships who are self-conscious are able to specify their strengths and failings. Harmonizing to Klimecki ( 2010 ) self -aware leaders are demanding frequent feedback from his colleagues and they seek for suggestion for any possible betterment. Did Lech WaA‚A™sa expression for feedback? As an single leader he went directly to accomplish his ends. He was non interested in having feedback what is more he did non analyse his actions because he was the innovator. He did non hold any illustration to follow as before all sorts of struggles of such sort were non solved in a peaceable manner. Among other things it was one of the ground why he was non re-elected as a President of Poland. Lack of analyse of behavior and belief that personal appeal and trust would be plenty brought the licking and his backdown from political relations in Poland.
It is another dimension of Emotional Intelligence by Goleman ( 1986 ) By and large talking it is the ability to understand another ‘s point of position. However Goleman extended it and included non merely understanding of others but besides analyzing and utilizing this cognition to construct stronger relationship and do better determinations. Lech WaA‚esa was so focussed on recognizing his aims that he did non care of understanding another individual ‘s position. Thomas Sancton wrote in Times that “ Walesa is a adult male of emotion, non of logic or analysis. ” The deficiency of developing this accomplishment caused his failure in re- election as WaA‚A™sa could non or even did non desire to analyze either his ain actions or the public presentation of his challengers.
To do a decision the old inquiry should be asked once more: Is Lech WaA‚A™sa transformational leader?