The birth of color theory

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Color surveies begin with the interaction of visible radiation and colour, for without visible radiation we would detect no colour, form, or infinite. Our apprehension of visible radiation and colour was greatly aided by Sir Isaac Newton ‘s find that white visible radiation contains all seeable colour. In coloring material: Why the World Is n’t Grey, Hazel Rossotti provinces:

“ But we must recognize.. that coloring material is a esthesis, produced in the encephalon, by the visible radiation which enters the oculus ; and that while a esthesis of a peculiar coloring material is normally triggered off by our oculus having visible radiation of a peculiar composing, many other physiological and psychological besides contribute. “

Rossotti, Colour: Why the World Is n’t Grey,142.

The article writes about the colour surveies with beginnings from the history of colour theory. Early surveies of the nature of colour starts with an ancient Greece, Aristotle whose developed the first known theory of colour and categorized it into four elements: Earth, fire, air current and H2O. Aristotle came out with the colour system on the organisation of colour based on strictly on comparative darkness and elation. Sir Isaac Newton ‘s find that white visible radiation contains all seeable colour. At first the colour wheel has been made into several theory of his ideas in detecting and understand the natural of visible radiations. The in between on the adaptative colour wheel which connects the passage of colour had made a manner of categorize the colour into primary colour and secondary colour. ( Richard Keys,1990 )

The colour wheel breakdown from different theories tells reader about the understanding natural of visible radiations and projecting colourss which breaks into a group that define the temperature, strength and value of colour. Color is measured in chromaticity ( its character ) , value ( or brightness ) , and strength ( or chromatic pureness ) . Bauhaus professor Johannes Itten with his modern colour wheel had breaks colourss down into three groups ; primary colourss which is can non be created by blending others ( ruddy, bluish and xanthous ) , secondary colourss created by blending two primaries ( orange, green and violet ) and third colourss created by blending a primary and secondary colour. ( Anne Laure To,2010 ) The physicist or illuming interior decorator considers ruddy blue and green as primaries alternatively the creative person or interior decorator speaks of ruddy blue and xanthous as primaries. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage ( CIE ) diagram is good for two things: it diagrammatically demonstrates why the three primaries chromaticities ( it ‘s character ) in visible radiation are ruddy green blue instead than ruddy xanthous blue in quantitative footings. ( Leon Battista Alberti,1966 )

The fluctuations in this colour wheel, together with changes in value and strength, theoretician such as Ostwald and Munsell have ensuing the systems in usage today. Both of Ostwald and Munsell relied to a great extent on old theoreticians ; Book Two of Leon Battista Alberti ‘s Della Pittura, where he says that ” … the clear colourss are ever near other different darker colourss. This contrast will be beautiful where the colourss are clear and bright. Besides, on the other manus, the treatment of colour is its inter-relatedness, a common subject in Johann Goethe ‘s Theory of Colors every bit good:

When the oculus sees a colourss it is instantly excited, and

it is its nature, spontaneously and of necessity, at one time to

green goods another, which with the original colourss comprehends

the whole chromatic graduated table. A individual colourss excites, by a

specific esthesis, the inclination to catholicity. In this

resides the cardinal jurisprudence of all harmoniousness of colourss…

The theory of colour has been altered from clip to clip from theories in developing the content position of colour. From Goethe ‘s scientific decisions, his observations about optical effects and emotional impact remain with his probes provided a profound position of colour, the agreement of colour into the colour wheel. Review by John Ruskin echoed this inter- relatedness with a comment that is as accurate for interior decorators, “ Every chromaticity throughout your work is altered by every touch that you add in other topographic points. ”

Color wheel became a standard method of visualising colour relationships nevertheless the state of affairs was more complex than a colour wheel might propose. Schopenhauer altered Goethe ‘s six portion colour wheel theory by distinguishing it quantitatively, in order to equalise chromaticities by nil comparative brightness. In the Primer of Colors written by Ostwald discussed about colour harmoniousness with a inquiry arises of what determines the consequence of experience that few combinations of different colourss are delighting, others displeasing or indifferent. The reply to the inquiry is those colourss are delighting among which some habitue or orderly relationship obtains as a group of colourss whose consequence is delighting is called harmonious. ( Josef Albers,1976 )

Ostwald and Munsell worked on the facet of colour theory which is on the desirableness of set uping colourss in a system utilizing a colour solid, with colour defined by both chromaticities and value. Munsell ‘s theory of harmoniousness on colour is based on the impression of common elements arranged by chromaticity, value and strength in a spherical format so that the centre of the domain is the natural reconciliation point for all parametric quantities of colour. Itten ‘s concludes that “ Knowledge of nonsubjective rules is indispensable to the right rating and usage of colourss ” . ( Itten,1970 ) The birth of colour has been developed from a individual theory into few theories which discovered the elements of colour and its usage in a medium such as picture, digital colour rectification and so forth.

The research of this article is of import to the thesis entitled Study of the Color Theory that allows Ocular Students to command colourss in Compositing Rendered Still Image.It is of import for pupil to understand the colour theory and colour behaviour of its particular used when undertaking an image onto canvas or digital.

2.2 Color and Visual Impression

Journal: Image and Video Processing – Bogdan Ionescu

The utilizations of the right colour in a composing between background and foreground can take the oculus around an image and back up the narration of alive films with a sequence of rendered still image. Color technique in rendered still image uses a specific colour pallet which makes its colour distribution one major characteristic in analysing the content of the ocular. Color pallet with the right combination and dealingss used to convey a certain feelings or to show the artistic constructs of an image. Color with semantic and symbolic information from colour constructs or the ocular feeling should be an ideal manner of convince the content, the temper and look of an image. Human sense, explore and understand the surrounding universe by utilizing ocular perceptual experience as if an object human interact with, the encephalon create a mental image of its specific colourss: the sky is bluish, the wood is green, the sand is xanthous, and so forth. ( A.W.M Smeulders,2000 )

Color in Sleeping Beauty, one of Disney ‘s celebrated animated movie, uses colour to back up the movie ‘s narrative. The colour sequence to the narrative discharge of the film, becomes clear by demoing how colour supports the secret plan in each act reflect its emotional tone. Each of the sequence with colour is the key to the event in the narrative as an illustrations, The good faeries grant the baby Aurora the gifts of beauty and vocal ( soft and cold colour in the sky ) and Fairies moderate the expletive and take Aurora into concealing ( dark purple with struggle colourss ) . In the concluding act of the film, consists of green, cold yellows, inkinesss and purples and many of these colourss are symbolically referred to the immorality in Western civilization. ( Disney classic Sleeping Beauty,1959 )

One of the facet in colour theory, is the symbolic significance of colour. The work of historian Michel Pastoureau demonstrates the function of cultural perceptual experience. Harmonizing to Pastoureau the Ancient Greeks did non hold common words for Grey, green and bluish. They did non see these colour in their culturally relevant, alternatively they focused on black, white and ruddy as the black for soil, white for pureness and ruddy for blood and decease, the calamities of human life. ( Michel Pastoureau,2009 ) .

In Western history, ruddy colour holds both positive and negative values as it is the colour of both fire and blood, love and snake pit. Colorss play an of import function in life in making tempers, as it used to stress the emotional constituents of a plot line together with Itten ‘s theory of his seven contrasts and complementary colourss.

The colour perceptual experience can be characterize through the esthesis induced by the colour. Itten in 1961 defined a first set of formal regulations to quantify the perceptual experience effects achieved by uniting different colourss. Colorss that sit opposite each other on the wheel is the complementary colourss. The arrangement of neighbouring colourss reflect the subjective country that colour has a temperature: reds and yellows are considered to be warm while blues and leafy vegetables are ice chest. A green closer to yellow would be warmer than one heavy with bluish, merely as a ruddy with a elan of blue would draw it over to the cooler side of the wheel. ( Anne Laure To, 2010 )

In an image, a composing of colour drama an of import function of leads the oculus to the topographic point where it receives the information and look of capable. Human eyes attracted foremost by gesture, and so by the point on an image with the highest colour contrast. In book The Art of Color by Johannes Itten sets out seven different types of colour contrast that can command colour strategies: visible radiation and dark, pure colour, impregnation, warm and cold, complementary colourss, proportion and coincident contrast.

Light and dark is the most obvious type of contrast is that of visible radiation and dark tones, which is black and white are extremes alternatively Grey is impersonal and soften the colourss that surround it. The values of the tone demand to set up both the way of visible radiation and forms of an object in the scene. Pure colour or chromaticity is the belongings of colour that gives the highest contrast of all. The greater distance between two points on the colour wheel, the greater the contrast. In Golden Age of amusing books of 40 ‘s, the character like Thor, Batman and such Marvel, Dc cartoon strips, the usage of these contrast has become a ocular codification doing the heroes costumes easy to acknowledge and stands out comparison to the others. As an illustration, the costume of Iron Man, the coding system of the character, ruddy and gold described the character as strong, solid an so forth.

The impregnation is a step of its pureness, or the grade to which other colourss country assorted with it. A concentrated colour if surrounded by desaturated colour, it appears even brighter as these technique is a utile manner control the composing of the foreground and background of an image. The warm and cold is use to make a Contra between foreground and background. When both cold and warm are juxtaposed, the cold colour seems to withdraw while the warm comes towards the oculus making a ocular quiver.

The seven contrast of complementary colourss in Itten, is suit to distinguish between character and the background as an illustration the usage colour strategies reds and blues, give the character recognizable and stands out from the background. The proportion and the coincident contrast creates the ocular impact and semblance in which it makes the Contra of the character and background same as others. ( Anne Laure To,2010 )

The article that concludes the method of colour theory which is seting theory into pattern in commanding the colour strategies, the colour pallet and besides to do a used of colour semantic and symbolic as a key in doing a topic or an object of an image recognizable to the audience or viewing audiences. It ‘s of import to see the colour theory being developed and altered from the huge domain of colour tantrum into a individual modern colour wheel by theories and old research workers.

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.1 Data Collection

To make the thesis, few methods were done to roll up the information for analysis.

Books, past journals/ articles and a digital signifier of acquisition.


3.2 Research Methods

The first method that was used in this thesis are citing past diaries, printed articles and digital acquisition signifier as to acquire the information on the colour theory and set it into pattern on the rendered still images. This was to acquire the thesis some interior and position from experts that have done intensive research about this issue earlier. This covered on the theory of colour that had been developed from theories, philosopher and research workers fix into individual construct of modern colour wheel that has been used presents in artistic constructs and art classs as a usher. Books and the digital signifier of larning can spread out the term of colour theory from the basic theory of utilizing colourss to the basic usage of colour in an alive films sequences of rendered still image. This method was the chief beginning of information for this thesis as it would supply huge sum of information.

The 2nd method was used for this thesis is interviews as to acquire more inside informations replies, point of position from people in art industry. This method was conducted on five or six selected people in life industry, art manager and the lector of art classs. With this interview, it gained indoors on more luxuriant reply by the people so the consequences were richer in context. The interviews was done in the country that the people are most comfy in so it will acquire the people at easiness and relax, ready to reply some inquiries. The inquiries were merely sets to five or six inquiries since it is an interview with elaborative replies.

Examples of inquiries that were asked are:

How does a colour affects an image?

How to make harmoniousness between tones of character and the background?

How the usage of colour semantic and symbols tantrums into a planetary?

3.3 Procedures

The interview was done by one in a room or topographic point that the interviewee is most comfy so they were at easiness to reply the inquiry. Most of the interview with industry people will be conducted through online electronic mails as they might non hold their available slot to repair a clip to run into. The inquiries and replies were given out and collected manually by manus and compile it into excel for analysis.

Chapter 4: Analysis and Consequences

4.1 Color theory

White visible radiation is made of the wholly of colour of rainbow which is called spectrum. Over two thousand old ages ago, Aristotle with his coevalss working to suit the universe into a individual universal construct, came out with a colour system based strictly on comparative elation and darkness. The following two thousand old ages ago, Sir Isaac Newton find that white visible radiation was made from all the colourss of the rainbow. He proved the theory with used two prism, the first prism undertaking the white visible radiations into several colourss of rainbow and the 2nd prism undertaking back all the colourss of rainbow into a white visible radiation. The white visible radiation is made of several colourss of rainbow.

In the colour wheel, he took a additive spectrum that eventful radiation of colour and connects to the terminal, the in between of the colour ( on the colour wheel ) the ruddy terminal and the violet terminal, he noticed that he necessitate a colour to make full them up for in between or transitional connecting colourss. An habit-forming colour wheel was added by Sir Isaac Newton as he tried to understand the nature of visible radiations. Soon the theory was being modified into a simplest signifier of demoing the white visible radiation was made by several colourss indentified by overlapping the colourss. The overlapping colourss, on the primary is the ruddy, green and bluish and it happens to make the secondary colour of yellow, cyan and magenta and eventually when it is combines it become a white visible radiation. Secondary colour ( xanthous, bluish green and magenta ) likely gives the widest scope of commixture, when they overlapped gives the primary colourss ( ruddy, bluish and green ) once more when all these overlapped it gives black colour.

The National Color System ( NCS ) is officially used by certain state. The colour is in three braces opposite which is the white and black, the green and ruddy and the yellow and blue. The NCS is to be considered as psychological colour wheel, it does non assist in manipulate visible radiations and pigment besides it makes good tune feeling to the encephalon to have the information.

Color has three properties of speech pattern which is known as value, impregnation and chromaticity. Human vision system are sensitive to the visible radiation and the dark feel and they tend to blossom and glow. In a black and white old movie, the value of visible radiations seems to be the chief factor that human vision can travel into life without colour. In a sample of old picture, there is a ground a colour is applied in a picture of the intent to stress the word picture or a topic. Some of it, the usage of darkness and elation is to make the contrast and some of them are cultural. As an illustration of picture by Rogier Van Der Weyden, the Portrait of Charles the Bold, at the point of history the black becomes favourite colour and it was a Protestant colour and it besides was a statement against the indulgence says the proceed of commiseration of the Catholic church at that clip as people wore black to speak about their humbleness.

Color is measured in chromaticity ( its character ) , value ( or brightness ) and strength ( or chromatic pureness ) . These are normally steps of reflected colour, which is different from transmitted visible radiation. The creative person or interior decorator speaks of red-blue-yellow while the physicist ( or illuming interior decorator ) considered red-blue-green as primaries. The add-on of all three primaries in pigment from outputs black ( or dark Grey, due to drosss in the pigment ) . An add-on in light outputs, as anyone familiar with a CIE “ tougue diagram ” knows white. The CIE diagram is good for two things: it diagrammatically demonstrates why the three primaries hues in visible radiation are red-green-blue ( instead than red-yellow-blue ) in quantitative footings, and why the EE point is so sought after by the interior decorators of electric visible radiation beginnings. This besides demonstrates one of the most debatable facets of colour.

4.2 Itten ‘s Seven Color Contrast

Bauhaus professor Johannes Itten created the modern colour wheel which forms the footing for most modern theories of colour, and has appeared in many different designs. Johannes Itten ‘s colour sphere present the three primary colourss, ruddy, xanthous and bluish and three secondary colourss these generate orange, purple and green. The colour wheel is used to invent an overall pallet to stress the consequence of an image.

In a movie or life, colour of the character and background has been composed to take the oculus to the topographic point where it receives the information to viewer. Human vision normally attracted first by gesture and so by the point on an image with the highest colour contrast. The Art of Color by Johannes Itten sets out seven different types of colour contrast that can command.

The first of his seven colour contrast is the light and dark tones. Black and white are the extremes, Grey is impersonal and softens the colourss that surround it. Second is the pure colour or knows as chromaticity, the belongings of colour that gives the highest contrast of all is besides the easiest to understand. The greater the distance between two points on the colour wheel, the greatest the contrast: an consequence amplified further when juxtaposed with black and white. In the Middle Ages, the Christ and twelve apostles appeared in pictures colour coded so that a mostly illiterate population could acknowledge them. The colour books used on modern animated characteristics use the same rule.

Third is the impregnation which is step of its pureness, or the grade to which other colourss are assorted with it. When a saturated colour is surrounded by desaturated colour, it appears even brighter. There are four different ways to desaturate colour, adding white or tincting makes it cooler and adding black ( shadowing ) , or Grey ( chanting ) reduces its brightness while by blending in the complementary colour, a chocolate-brown Grey is obtained. The latter techniques is a utile manner to take the colourss of shadows in life work, instead than utilizing an unnatural-looking pure black for a shadow neglecting on a surface, take the chromaticity of the surface, so add its complementary colour and a elan of bluish to make a desaturated Grey.

The brightest of the seven contrasts occurs between chromaticities considered cold and warm. If both warm and cold are juxtaposed, the cold colour seems to travel back while the warm 1 comes towards the oculus, making a ocular quiver. The fifth is the complementary colourss. If complementary colourss are juxtapose, each intensifies the other. When done with pure colourss, the consequence can be discordant, but if the temper each one by cut downing its impregnation. Example in Finding Nemo, the chief character Marlin is an orange clownfish, vouching that he will stand out from the bluish submerged background. Co-star Dory emerges from the background through a more elusive contrast of impregnation ( her organic structure is a stronger blue than the H2O ) and the pure ( her yellow fives ) .

The 6th is the proportion which is Itten ‘s colour sphere, converted to greyscale with the chromaticities have equal brightnesss. The author and philosopher Johann Woldgang von Goethe, himself and of import colour theoretician, proposed the following graduated table of comparative brightness: xanthous equal to nine ( lightest ) , orange equal to eight, ruddy equal to six, green equal to six, bluish equal to four and purple are equal to three which is the darkest. Harmonizing to Goethe ‘s graduated table, equal countries of green and ruddy have equal ocular impact, and this impact is equal to that of a larger country of blue or purple, or a smaller country of yellow or orange. Last the Itten ‘s seven colour contrast is coincident contrast. The concluding type of colour contrast is created by the oculus ‘s inclination to animate complementary colourss, even where none exist. This consequence can be connect by juxtaposing a individual bright colour against a Grey background.

The seven colour contrast by Johannes Itten have been practiced in blockbusters animation movie such as the Up, Nine, Astroboy, Caroline and any others blockbuster movie. As such in Up movie, a triadic colour on the Itten ‘s modern wheel have adopts a new pallet to capture the esthesis of an alien escapade. Triadic colour strategies, based on three colourss that are equidistant around the colour wheel, supply a vivacious impact, therefore the pick of purple and orange speech patterns against the dominant viridity.

In Nine life movie makes usage of correspondent colour strategies, utilizing colourss that are side by side on the Itten ‘s colour wheel. In Nine, every scene has a dominant chromaticity, whether it is a quieting blue and an unsettling green. Keeping this attack throughout the movie leads Nine an eerie spirit that suits the station revelatory plot line. Besides in Caroline movie, the scenes demoing Caroline ‘s existent universe are muted and dull, reflecting her disenchantment with her life. As she enters the tunnel and a new world on the other side, the colour strategy is heightened with frequent apposition of strong warm and cold colourss to add contrast and play.

In a mention from Pixar ‘s movie, on how colour tells the narrative of Pixar ‘s Up. The colour strategy in each scene of pixar ‘s alive characteristic is meticulously planned to reflect its events. For Pixar ‘s Up production interior decorator Lou Romano created a colour book, a sequence of studies that shows how the pallet alterations to reflect the emotion of each transition within the narrative. The first is the impregnation and harmoniousness, as Carl meet and marry Ellie, the pallet is bright, with harmonious colour strategies taken from nature. For Carl, this is a happy clip that remains graphic in his memory. The desaturation is applied in the present twenty-four hours which is Carl ‘s life without Ellie is shown in more hushed sunglassess. Carl ‘s increased interaction with urban locations during this period makes the passage feel uncoerced. The triadic colour with the strength of colour increasingly increases as Carl and Russell ‘s escapade takes them to the justice, where a triadic colour makes their initial brushs with the alien seem all the more graphic.

The warm and cold contrast and impregnation when a tenseness saddle horses as the movie ‘s flood tide nears. Colors become more concentrated, and there ‘s greater usage of warm-cold contrast to underscore progressively dramatic state of affairs. The correspondent heat when a crisis halt occurrence and the narrative stoping, the pallet selects correspondent chromaticities from the warm side of the colour wheel, puting the concluding scenes with a esthesis of harmoniousness, heat and peace.

4.3 Interview

The interview had been made with a individual from industry Mr. Matthew Ho who had experienced working in compositing more than a old ages with a broadcast company. Few inquiries were shoot in a sequence, start with a basic cognition of colour, account of human interaction with colour, an effectual manner to command colour by principal of colour, a technique on how to use the colour into a consideration of human involvement and eventually an advice to a practicing creative person who have an dying to utilize a colour in their graphicss.

Q1: What is Color?

Color is the accident of visible radiations. Color was define by visible radiations strength and the white visible radiation is made of several colourss as we have learned 300 old ages ago from a colour theoretician. Color, by and large we think the colour leave in things as an illustration a ruddy box, it may appears ruddy and so if we take out the primary colour the ruddy, it will look blue as it shown that the colour does non populate in the box.

Q2: How does a colour affects human involvement to an image?

Color is complex, it has an extraordinary power to travel us emotionally and psychologically to our perceptual experience of a topic. Our eyes, attracted to a contrast and saturated colour as an illustration we by and large could detect the signage of cautiousness with xanthous and black colour which gives our head into perceptual experience of qui vive.

Q3: How make you command the colour strategy in order to make harmoniousness between tones and background?

In order to make harmoniousness based on the colour strategies, normally color wheel or colour brochure is used as a mention to place the colour codification by strength of visible radiations. The combination of two colourss could take to a colour struggle without any mention and usher from the colour wheel such as warm and cold. The colour strategy of the foreground and background must be put in a correct values which allows the spectator to concentrate on one peculiar topic or object in an image.

Q4: How to use the colour codification of semantic and symbolic to suit into a planetary?

A symbolic colour like ruddy is blood, white is pure black is darkness. These symbolic or semantic are use to pass on to a spectator through the head experience adapt from milieus. These colour semantic normally fits to a planetary, but there is no uncertainty that other topographic points interpret the colour into different significance, fundamentally the usage of colour depends on the life styles and civilization at one topographic point.

Q5: Suggestion to a pupils or any other creative persons about the usage of colour and understand the colour construct pattern in their undertaking.

To utilize the colour is easy as you do a simple line plants or shots on a canvas, but to do the colour looks alive, it takes a really good consideration by assorted the colour and compose it. The usage of contrast, chromaticity and strength gives more definition on an image an yet it may look interesting in the oculus of spectator.

4.4 Overview

Overview of the interview show that the colour theory explain that colour demand to gives an impact to an image as it gives more information and feature to a topic.

Chapter 5: Findingss and Discussions

5.1 Findingss

From the book, past diary, articles and eventually the interview, the survey finds and overall consequences of colour seting theory into pattern as to take control in compositing of colourss in rendered still image.

5.2 Recommendations

This survey could be bench grade for future surveies in this class to supply some mentions or info. The intent of this survey is to understand the usage of colour theory apply in compositing colourss of rendered stills image and to take control of making harmoniousness between the tones of the character and the background.

Based on the determination of this survey, the birth of colour theory has been developed from clip to clip with an experiment of detecting the white visible radiations and breakdown it into a groups of colour, primary, secondary, third and any other complementary colourss. The seven colour contrast by Itten help the interior decorator and creative person to take control of colour composing and go comfy working with tonic values.

5.3 Decision

This thesis has outlined the usage of colour theory to back up an image and to take control in compositing colourss and yet make harmoniousness between the tones of the character and the background. Professor Johannes Itten created the modern colour wheel, present the three primary colourss, ruddy yellow and blue and three secondary colourss these generate orange, purple and green. His seven colour contrast theory could give the ocular pupil to take control in compositing of colourss in rendered stills image.


6.1 Interview Questions

Q1: What is Color?

Q2: How does a colour affects human involvement to an image?

Q3: How make you command the colour strategy in order to make harmoniousness between tones and background?

Q4: How to use the colour codification of semantic and symbolic to suit into a planetary?

Q5: Suggestion to a pupils or any other creative persons about the usage of colour and understand the colour construct pattern in their undertaking.