The comparing of Paris and London subdivisions of George Orwell ‘s Down and Out in Paris and London
Both world and fiction play an of import function in George Orwell ‘s literary sociography, Down and Out in Paris and London.1 However, alternatively of analyzing these elements, I would instead compare the two cities, Paris and London, through the writer ‘s personal experiences. I would wish to foreground the differences that already occur in the rubric and the two subdivisions, the introductory descriptions of the metropoliss and detect how he managed to do a life, how he became penniless and his friends in the two metropoliss.
First and first, I feel that it is inevitable to advert some relevant informations about the writer ‘s life that contribute to the easier apprehension of his work. He worked for the royal constabulary in the 1920s when he was sent to Burma where he woke up to the unfairness of society that he thought rooted in the being of societal categories. As yearss turned into hebdomads, his interior characteristics were changed in Burma ; he became lazy, since he was accompanied by retainers all the clip who helped him even dressing. As he returned to his household, after go forthing this occupation, declared that he wanted to gain a life from being a author. However, his household strongly disapproved the thought, so he made up his head to go forth them and stand on his on pess. Therefore, he decided to detect the universe of the lower categories of society and fall in them in atonement for his old shallow life style. He determined to compose about the hapless, that is why dressed up as a homeless, he spent most of his clip in the company of hobos and mendicants in London.2 Nevertheless, possibly Orwell felt the deepest indigence when his nest eggs was stolen in Burma. He might hold died of hungriness, if he had non been able to acquire a occupation as a plongeur in the basement of a hotel, but going tired of it, he returned to the stable- occupation offering England. One can read about the foregoing poorness, in which he had first-hand experience, in Down and Out in Paris and London, every bit good. Since 1933, the publication of this book, has he used his anonym George Orwell, otherwise his birth name was Eric Arthur Blair.3
I would wish to analyze the rubric and construction of the work. The pinpoint accurately described image of the two city appears every bit early as in the rubric, underscoring that merely these metropoliss are illustrated in the book. Now, one can merely think that the hobo is the implied writer itself and the inquiry arises in which town the destiny of the homeless is more unfortunate. As for the construction, the first version the book merely contained the Paris subdivision ( Chapter I-XXIII. ) and the London subdivision ( Chapter XXIV-XXXVIII. ) was written later.4 The relationship between the two subdivisions is created by his friend called B, who appears merely in Chapter XXI, still, although non continuously, but till the terminal of the book, he is present in a manner that he procures occupation for the supporter and lends him money, accordingly, saves his life.
I intend to travel on with the introductory images of Paris and London. At the beginning of the work, the storyteller gives a thorough description of his life quarters in Paris, the Hotel diethylstilbestrols Trois Moineaux in Rue du Coq vitamin D ‘ Or. On the one manus, one can go familiar with the edifice itself which ‘was a dark, rickety Warren of five floors, cut up by wooden dividers into 40 suites. The suites were little and inveterately dirty’5 and full of ‘innumerable bugs. ‘ On the other manus, one can acquire to cognize the boarders, excessively, who ‘were of every trade- cobblers, bricklayers, stonemasons, drudges, pupils, cocottes, rag-pickers. ‘6 Furthermore, the implied writer throws light on the life of the slum the Centre of which is a bistro, ‘a bantam brick-floored room, half belowground, with wine-sodden tabular arraies ‘ where ‘red-sashed workingmans carving sausage with large jack-knives ‘ and Madame F. ‘drinking Malaga all twenty-four hours. ‘ 7 In malice of the fact that the milieus radiates poorness and privation, he does non render it to be monochrome or grey, but everything is in gesture, as ‘variegated chorus of cries ‘ , ‘cries of street peddlers ‘ and ‘the cries of kids trailing orange-peel over the cobbles’8 can be heard every bit early as seven in the forenoon. Additionally, everything is colorful every bit good as the worker ‘s ruddy scarves or Charlie ‘s ‘lips overly ruddy and wet, like cherries ‘ and later on about everything is red in his description such as ‘red Earths flooded the basement with a ruddy visible radiation ‘ , ‘red paper on the walls, ruddy plush on the chairs, even the ceiling ruddy, everyplace ruddy ‘ and the miss ‘dressed in frock of ruddy velvet. ‘9 Besides, everybody is able to happen their ain felicity as it is stated in the book ‘I wish 1 could happen a saloon in London a one-fourth as cherry ‘ and ‘Ah, mais La vie est belle- you must non be sad. Be more homosexual, I beseech you! Ah, que la vie est belle! ’10 As opposed to this, London as a job-provider turns up already while the supporter is in Paris and the thought of going there comes true merely when he writes a missive to his friend, B. inquiring him to seek and assist him seek a occupation in London. Two more chapters are played in Paris after the implied writer receives a positive reply, when he takes the dip and go forth for London. On his journey to his fatherland, he is full of hopes, as it seems to him ‘a kind of Paradise ‘ and ‘the clime, the scenery, the art, the literature, the laws- everything in England is perfect. ’11 Furthermore, he clearly claims that ‘Paris is vulgar- half magniloquence and half slums. But London… ‘ 12 However, every bit shortly as he arrives, his fabulous image oversights into obscureness, since the hotel along Tilbury wharf ‘stares from the English seashore like imbecile staring over an refuge wall’13 and he catches sight of the eastern slums that subsequently on function him as a living one-fourth. In comparing with the meticulously detailed long description of Paris, here he superficially portrays the milieus which is apprehensible for some grounds. On the one manus, he does non cognize London every bit good as Paris, on the other manus he spends his darks in different topographic points. The reader knows small about his first diggingss that it was ‘a household hotel, where the charge was seven and tanner. ’14 One might feel the alterations of colors, every bit good, since now the ruddy scarf becomes colorless and worn by the storyteller itself whose coat is dark brown, pants are black and he ne’er of all time wore such cheapjack apparels. Even his face is pale and foul, excessively. The bunco and hustle of Rue du Coq vitamin D ‘ Or is vanished and the moth-eaten supporter experiences that adult females try to maintain away from hobos.
Countless differences between the images of the metropoliss can be traced upon already in the debut. For illustration, in Paris the reader can knock into people from several states, as the diggingss are scattered with Arab, Polish and Italian people, a Bulgarian pupil, a Russian adult female with her boy, an Englishman called R. and the ‘Roumanian ‘ Monsieur Jules. These civilizations imply multi-colourness and diverseness. But one can detect that nationalities are present in the whole Paris subdivision along with the Italian immature male child traveling into the hotel ; Russian Boris, his friends and the manager of Hotel ‘Auberge de Jehan Cottard ‘ ; American invitees ; the Italian server, Valenti and his plongeur, Mario and the Magyar plongeur coming from Transylvania ; Armenian doorkeeper who claimed himself to be Greek ; a Serbian plongeur ; Arab workers who work all twenty-four hours and imbibe themselves to decease at dark ; Marinette, the miss from Corsica ; the Spanish Manuel Jules and the Magyar server of the Hotel. Besides, the German state is mentioned and cheered Vive I ‘ Allemange! Although there are people from assorted civilizations in London, every bit good, it bears no comparing with the sum shown in Paris. The reader may acquire to cognize the Rumanian twosome during the journey to London ; run into the busy people from the East in the one-fourth of Limehouse or some Irish like Paddy, the hobo with whom the implied writer became steadfast friends. In add-on, the universe outside Europe foremost appears here, since the storyteller non merely mentions it, but besides meets Indian people. This is non inadvertent, for he was born in India. Consequently, one can reason from the listing that London society is much more homogenous and free from teeming and divergencies caused by the happenstance of legion civilization.
I would wish to transport on analyzing how life was in both Paris and London. The characteristics of both metropoliss mentioned before have an imprint on metropolis life till the terminal of the book.
First, allow us analyze London! As I mentioned it above, the supporter had far-fetched image of London before his reaching at that place, but every bit shortly as he realises that there is non any occupation for him in London, neither, this beautiful ‘created ‘ image fades off. Until he gets a occupation, he has nil else to make to last than to borrow money from his friend, B. and visit pawnbroker’s shops and sell his apparels even at really low monetary value. The pauper and unemployed Orwell starts pondering and eventually, discovers that an illiterate adult male needs more a occupation than money. Yet, London is the universe of jurisprudence and order which might be a drawback for the homeless, since ‘under the Vagrancy Act hobos can be prosecuted for smoke in the spike. ‘ 15 What is more, the worst thing about this metropolis is that one is obliged to pay if he wants to sit down on public topographic points, unlike in Paris where ‘if you had no money and could non happen a public bench, you would sit on the paving. Heaven knows what sitting on the paving would take to in London- prison, likely. ’16 There is no such regulation in Paris where people are allowed to kip even under the Bridgess of the Seine. Furthermore, after holding lived in the loud, noisy and ‘wild ‘ Paris, the storyteller observed that everything is much clearer, calmer and more boring in London. As he stated ‘One missed the shriek of the ropewaies, and the noisy, maturating life of the back streets, and the armed work forces clacking through the squares. The crowds were better dressed and the faces comelier and milder and more likewise, without that ferocious individualism and maliciousness of the Gallic. There was less drunkenness, and less soil, and less quarrelling, and more idleness. Knots of work forces stood at all the corners, somewhat ill-fed, but kept traveling by the tea-and-two-slices which the Londoner swallows every two hours. One seemed to take a breath a less hectic air than in Paris. It was the land of the tea urn and the Labour Exchange, as Paris is the land of the bistro and the sweatshop. ’17
So, allow us go on with the analyses of life in Paris. In this metropolis after seeking occupation for a long clip, the implied writer and his friend, Boris had to work hard ( particularly when working at Hotel X. , they were really frequently on their last legs or when working at Auberge, they barely found clip to hold their hair cut ) so that they could do ends meet. Consequently, one might see that the writer had an highly draining, lasting and even soul-scarping occupation in Paris, unlike in London where he merely helped at poorhouses and in return he was given nutrient which was non so palling. The offered occupation in London at the terminal of the book is considered to be a prospective ‘rest ‘ by the writer, in malice of the fact that it was once more a plongeur ‘post ‘ in Lower Binfield, so he could non acquire rid of this sort of life style. One more thing that one can detect in Paris is that work forces tend to utilize four-letter words in the company of adult females, which phenomenon ne’er occurs in London.
More to the point, there are similarities between the two metropoliss, every bit good. For case, there are people who endeavour to rip off the homeless. First, the plongeur Orwell was given less wage by the doorkeeper in Hotel X. in Paris, secondly, he got a six penny worth nutrient verifier from a priest under the Charing Cross span in London, but subsequently, he was served merely four penny worth nutrient in a eating house. ‘Large tea and two pieces ‘ in London peers ‘the ageless putsch de rouge’18 in Paris. Another illustration of similarities is, that he has to utilize money meagerly in both metropoliss. In my position, life in Paris with all of its troubles appealed more to the writer, than that in London. Possibly it is due to the fact that everything is colorful and manifold in the old town and therefore, he is able to be cheerful, while in London one without money is merely ‘fit for nothing’19
I feel that it is interesting to observe how he became pauper and what sort of friendly relationships he had. The storyteller foremost becomes penniless in the Paris subdivision when one twenty-four hours he wakes up to the fact that he has merely four hundred and 50 francs left and he can merely anticipate 36 per hebdomad by giving English lessons. And what makes affairs worse, subsequently he is robbed of his money by the Italian fellow-resident in the diggingss. This robbery took topographic point in world, excessively, but in this instance it was a prostitute from a cafeteria.20 So, he gets even closer to poverty and suggests that ‘from the start it tangles you in a cyberspace of prevarications, and even with the prevarications you can barely pull off it. ’21 When all of a sudden his English lessons cease, he claims that ‘this put an terminal to all pretension of being in financess. ’22 As opposed to this, he arrives in London already being a hobo and here pretension is out of the inquiry. This is the metropolis that helps him stand on his pess, stops his challenges and the occupation offered in London helps him acquire out of indigence. As for his friendly relationships, we get to cognize tonss of things refering his friends ‘ nowadays and yesteryear in both Paris and London. He had merely Boris as a protagonist in Paris, but in London he was in relationship with an anon. old Irish adult male, the Irish Paddy, James and Bozo. Taking the figure of his friends into history, one might reason that in the old metropolis he was non lost, but in the latter he was much more reliant.
In the terminal, I would wish to analyze the two subdivisions on general footings. Without antecedently reading the book or cognizing anything about the fortunes of the outgrowth of it, the differences between the two subdivisions catch the oculus ; as if the reader read wholly different plants. Therefore, one might every bit good analyse them individually and the differences and the comparison of the two metropoliss might deduce from this. He arrives in London as an unemployed adult male, so the ‘Down and Out ‘ look from the rubric additions content in this subdivision. On the contrary, Paris is about adjustment and occupation seeking. As for the linguistic communication and manner of the book, I did non do a differentiation between the two subdivisions.
To sum up, I endeavoured to demo that Orwell ‘s work particularly its construction encourages the reader to comparing. Through the differences of both Paris and London subdivisions, the writer ‘s societal sensitiveness and his utile tips about how to get by with poorness can be discovered. Last, allow me hold on the effect of the work with Dervla Murphy ‘s sentences harmonizing to whom ‘It is the white-hot reaction of a sensitive, observant, compassionate immature adult male to poverty, unfairness and the unfeelingness of the rich. It offers penetrations, instead than solutions ; but ever penetrations have to predate solutions. ’23
Citation 20th: Meyers, Jeffrey. Orwell – Egy nemzedek fagyos lelkiismerete. Trans. Magyari Andrea. Budapest: Europa Konyvkiado , 2007. Print.
Citation 3-4: Murphy, Dervla. Introduction. Down and Out in Paris and London. By George Orwell. London: Penguin Books, 1989. Print.
Citation 1st: Orwell, George. Csavargokent Parizsban, Londonban. Trans. Koros Laszlo . Budapest: Cartaphilus Kiado , 2001. Print.
Citation 5-19 ; 21-23: Orwell, George. Down and Out in Paris and London. London: Penguin Books, 1989. Print.
Citation 2nd: Szalai, Ferenc. “George Orwell, AZ ujsagiro.” Magyarkronologia.hu. N.P. N.D. Web. 15 March 2010.