The economic growth of mauritius

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Mauritius has been sing an one-year mean economic growing of 5.5 % over the last two decennaries. However, since 2000 it has been on a slow down way. It reached its lowest rate in 2005 with 2.5 % but picked up last twelvemonth with a growing of 4.7 % . The growing engines, which were sugar and fabrics, are now confronting new challenges. The loss of penchants in these two chief sectors explains the lower economic public presentation. The concern clime in the state has been a pessimistic at the beginning of 2006. Other indexs such as unemployment rate and public fundss with a budget shortage stand foring 5.5 % of the GDP did non demo encouraging marks.

However, few months after the budget with new steps from the authorities, the private sector seems to be more confident.

The dismantlement of the MFA and the stoping of the Cotonou understanding is making added force per unit area on the local economic system. There is a high concern for the variegation of the economic system and the authorities is researching new avenues. However a figure of structural issues have to be addressed to be able to accomplish these aims.

The agricultural sector is now in a phasing down procedure as a consequence of the stoping of the Cotonou understanding in 2007. This sector accounts for 80 % land for sugar cane cultivation and employs approximately 9 % of the state ‘s labour force. Diversification of the sugar sector into the production of high value added merchandises such as particular sugars have already begun. Research on ethanol production as an linear to gasoline with present high fuel monetary values is being considered.

The EPZ sector is now at a turning point. Its portion of GDP in 2002 was 10.8 % compared to 6.8 % in 2006. The phasing out of the MFA understanding and increased competition from South East Asiatic states and China to US and EU markets has farther aggravated this state of affairs. The touristry sector is the lone promising sector due to significant growing in tourer reachings. It has been a important subscriber to foreign exchange net incomes ( transcending net incomes from sugar ) and employment. This sector in 2006 represented about 10 % of the GDP compared to 7 % in 2002. A batch of accent is being laid on the development of the touristry industry as a support to the other bad executing sectors of the economic system. 3 000 extra suites are in the grapevine with the gap of five new hotels stand foring an investing of Rs 4 billion. These new investings are expected to make 1 400 occupations.

The fiscal sector already known as the 4th pillar of the economic system has showed slow but positive growings during the last 4 old ages, from merely 4.5 % in 2002, the growing rate reached about 8 % in 2006. It ‘s portion to the GDP has besides increased from 9.2 % in 2002 to 10.7 % in 2006 and is felt as being a promising sector. The chief activities in this sector are related to the fiscal services, free-port activities and offshore concerns The authorities is besides puting to a great extent in the ICT sector. A figure of foreign companies have already started runing chiefly in the package development and call Centres. The authorities has developed the construct of a cyber metropolis with the purpose of pulling more companies. Equity financess have besides been set up to ease foreign direct investing and start-up investings.

Non duty steps:

Non-Tariff Measures are all non-price and non-quantity limitations on trade in goods, services and investing, at federal and ( member ) province degree. This includes boundary line steps ( imposts processs, etc. ) every bit good as behind-the boundary line steps fluxing from domestic Torahs, ordinances and patterns. ‘

The term ‘Non-Tariff Measure ‘ is a coordinative term for all obstructions and regulative divergency to merchandise in goods, services and factors of production, except for duties or other price/quantity limitations. They range from touchable import obstructors straight at the boundary line to steps that have a less direct nexus to merchandise like non-conformation to international merchandise criterions.

World Trade Administration:

The World Trade Organization ( WTO ) is the lone planetary international organisation covering with the regulations of trade between states. At its bosom are the WTO understandings, negotiated and signed by the majority of the universe ‘s trading states and ratified in their parliaments. The end is to assist manufacturers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their concern.

Customss responsibilities on ware imports are called duties. Tariffs give a monetary value advantage to locally-produced goods over similar goods which are imported, and they raise grosss for authoritiess. One consequence of the Uruguay Round was states ‘ committednesss to cut duties and to “ adhere ” their imposts responsibility rates to degrees which are hard to raise. The current dialogues under the Doha Agenda continue attempts in that way in agribusiness and non-agricultural market entree.

Several WTO unit of ammunitions have established a big lessening in the prevalence of duties as trade deformations. Consequently, comparatively NTMs are going more of import in farther trade liberalizations.

As the universe spins into the first decennary of the 21st century, dramatic and fleet transmutations are taking topographic point in international trade: turning liberalisation of trading systems ; enlargement of regional economic integratings ; inordinate liquidness in financing cross-country purchases ; and increasing connection with clients and marketing spouses due to major progresss in information, communicating, and transit engineerings ( Keegan 2002 ) . This has led to the outgrowth of a concern environment that has ne’er been so globalized, mutualist, and connected, widening in this manner both the range and graduated table of chances open to Sellerss. Despite these transmutations in the international market place, a big figure of smaller-sized makers still do non make bold transverse national boundaries to sell their merchandises and services, therefore seting themselves at a major disadvantage vis-a-vis their rivals who have opted for a more planetary concern position. there are unfavorable judgments that concerns are still hindered by mushrooming the NTB/ NTM and this will be discussed in the undermentioned chapters below.

FUNCTIONS OF NTM

While duties have continuously declined as a consequence of many-sided and regional trade liberalisation, Non-tariff steps ( NTMs ) have become a major obstruction to international trade and market entree.

Non-Tariff Measures refer to a wide scope of trade barriers and policy intercessions that restricts and distort trade ; there are concerns that NTM may besides be considered as cloaked protectionism. These are all non-price and non-quantity limitations on trade in goods, services and investing, at federal and province degree. This includes boundary line steps ( imposts processs, etc. ) every bit good as behind-the-border steps fluxing from domestic Torahs, ordinances and patterns.

There are several types of non-tariff steps imposed by trading states. Harmonizing to the typology of NTMs drawn up by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development ( UNCTAD ) , these include:

Non-tariff charges

Antidumping steps

Antidumping steps are taken against a dumping action of an exporter. It is considered that dumping takes topographic point when a merchandise is introduced into the commercialism of an importing state at less than its normal value, i.e. if the export monetary value of the merchandise exported is less than the comparable monetary value, in the ordinary class of trade, for the similar merchandise when destined for ingestion in the exporting state.

Licensing

Quantitative limitations

Quantity control steps are aimed at keeping the measure of goods that can be imported, irrespective of whether they come from different beginnings or one specific provider. These steps can take the signifier of restrictive licensing, repair of a preset quota, or through prohibitions.

Hand-operated license

This license is and import license, which is non granted automatically. The license may either be issued on a discretional footing or may necessitate specific standards to be met before it is granted.

License for non-economic grounds

This license is granted for political, spiritual grounds, or others, which are non economic.

Quotas

Quotas involve curtailing the importing of specified merchandises through the scene of a maximal measure or value of goods authorized for import. The different signifiers of quotas are planetary quotas, seasonal quotas, bilateral quotas etc.

Government engagement in trade and similar restrictive policies,

Offseting steps

Offseting steps are intended to countervail any direct or indirect subsidy granted by governments in the exporting state. These may take the signifier of offseting responsibilities or projects by the exporting houses or by governments of the subsidizing state.

Offseting responsibilities

Duties levied on certain goods to countervail the sum of subsidisation granted by the exporter on the production or trade of these goods, when the subsidy is assumed to ache domestic industry.

Rules of beginning

Customss processs and administrative policies,

Sanitary and Phytosanitary steps

Sanitary and phytosanitary ordinances include Torahs, edicts, demands and

processs to protect human, animate being or works life or wellness. Conformity is

mandatary.

Technical criterions ( UNCTAD 1994 ) .

Technical Barriers to Trade

Technical barriers to merchandise ( TBT ) are regulations/standards mentioning to proficient

specification of merchandises and conformance appraisal systems thereof

Voluntary criterions

Rules, guidelines or features for merchandises or procedures and production

methods ( e.g. size, coloring material, composing, quality, security and safety ) , approved by

a recognized organic structures at international, national or sub-national degrees, or those set

established by private companies. Conformity is non compulsory as voluntary

criterions do non hold the authorization of jurisprudence.

Technical ordinances

Technical ordinances like packaging, taging or labelling

Other proficient ordinances

Pre-shipment review

This is a physical review of goods before they are shipped in the state of export, which establishes the exact nature of the goods. The review assures that the goods are in conformity with the attach toing paperss that specify their imposts duty codification, quality, measure and monetary value.

Particular usage formalities non related to SPS/TBT

These are formalities to be fulfilled at the imposts, which are non related to the disposal of SPS/TBT steps.

Price Control Measures

Price control steps are implemented to command the monetary values of imported articles in

order to back up the domestic monetary value of certain merchandises when the import monetary value of these goods are lower ; set up the domestic monetary value of certain merchandises because of monetary value fluctuation in domestic markets, or monetary value instability in a foreign market ; and antagonize the harm ensuing from the happening of “ unjust ” foreign trade patterns.

Administrative pricing

By administrative monetary value repair, the governments of the importing state take into history the domestic monetary values of the manufacturer or consumer ; set up floor and ceiling monetary value bounds ; or return to find international market values. There may be different monetary value repairing methods, such as minimal import monetary values or monetary values set harmonizing to a mention

Voluntary export monetary value restraint

Voluntary export monetary value restraints are an agreement in which the exporter agrees to maintain the monetary value of his goods above a certain degree.

Variable charges

Variable charges are revenue enhancements or levies aimed at conveying the market monetary values of imported agricultural and nutrient merchandises in line with the monetary values of matching domestic merchandises. Primary trade goods may be charged per entire weight, while charges on processed groceries can be levied in proportion to the primary merchandise contents in the concluding merchandise.

Safeguard Duties

Emergency and/or impermanent responsibilities imposed as a safeguard action. A state may take a “ precaution ” action ( i.e. , restrict imports of a merchandise temporarily ) to protect a specific domestic industry from an addition in imports of any merchandise which is doing, or which is endangering to do, serious hurt to the domestic industry that produces like or straight competitory merchandises.

Seasonal responsibilities

Seasonal responsibilities are applicable at certain times of the twelvemonth, normally in connexion with agricultural merchandises.

These steps increase the cost of production for companies functioning in foreign markets, raising entry barriers with higher up-front costs and decreasing the ability of houses to vie in the procedure. The costs depend on the tightness of steps adopted, the needed velocity of execution, the nature of the supply concatenation, and the proficient steps already in topographic point in the exporter ‘s domestic market ( OECD 2001 ) . Therefore, middle-income developing states that already have comparatively rigorous proficient and wellness criterions, for illustration, might non see a really high cost of accommodation vis-a-vis the NTMs adopted in developed export markets.

Unlike duties, though, certain non-tariff steps may hold more selfless ends than mere trade protection. This could be true for proficient steps, be they proficient or industrial criterions, or health-related 1s that are applied by states in an effort to protect their citizens from merchandises that may be inferior or deficient in some manner, or, in some instances, even unsafe to the consumers ‘ wellbeing. Other proficient criterions, meanwhile, are steps that regulate merchandise features, taging, labelling, packaging, proving, review and quarantine procedures, and information airing by exporters.

NTB MEASURES DIRECTLY AFFECTING EXPORTS

Table 1: WTO NTB Categorisation Code

Measures straight impacting imports

Table 2: WTO NTB Categorisation Code

Import Licensing

The trade liberalization procedure which started since the 1880ss has abolished most of the licences for import and export of goods. Almost all legislated non-tariff barriers in Mauritius have largely been removed and by and large no quotas are imposed on exports or imports. Since 2004 there have non been major alterations in this country. The few merchandises which require particular licenses or certifications are classified under the Consumer Protection Act. The chief grounds for these licenses are for environmental, phytosanitary, and national security grounds. The controlled merchandises are regrouped in different agendas under the Consumer Protection Act.

The First Schedule consists of general goods which include nutrient points ( fresh and frozen ) , vegetable inputs, salt, cement, infant expression, crude oil oils, insect powders, weedkillers, pesticides, chemicals, PVC Pipes, Plastic eating bottles, Teats and soothers, Life Jackets, Motor-cyclists helmets ( crash helmets ) , Rough diamonds, Gold, Bakery and pastry equipment, Weighing machinery, Electric H2O warmers and submergence warmers, Public conveyance type, rider motor vehicles, coach, unsafe chemicals, Syringes, Food additives.

The 2nd agenda concerns prohibited goods chiefly for security and environmental grounds. They include explosives, Fire crackers, Motor vehicle gum elastic Surs which, have been remoulded, recapped or regrooved, Kerosene stoves, Ivory and Tortoise Shell, Underwater fishing guns, Sugar and cocoa confectionery and bubble/chewing gum in the signifier of coffin nails, Toy handguns and guns with missiles, points incorporating “ Aerosols ” utilizing C.F.C ‘s.

The 4th agenda of the Consumer Protection Act besides caters for the limitations on the controlled goods which are quantitative in nature and has quota limitations for merchandises such as murphies, table salt, gold and bakeshop and pastry equipment. Other limitations include conditions on 2nd manus or new vehicles imported by persons merely.

Under the 5th agenda, it shows the conditions under which the goods should be imported

which include proficient inside informations or norms of the peculiar merchandises such as rice, deliberation and

mensurating instruments, fats, brooms, PVC pipes, electric overseas telegrams, coconut oil, life jackets.

Discriminative excise responsibilities

Mauritius had a set of excise responsibilities and by definition are applicable to both local and imported goods. However even after the rationalization exercising of the imposts and excise responsibilities, which was carried out in 1994, there had ever been some signifier of favoritism between some of the merchandises which are imported and those produced locally.

This anomalousness has been removed last twelvemonth ( 2006 ) during the budget exercising. Excise responsibilities on locally manufactured and imported merchandises are the same. The tabular array below indicates the new excise duties.

Import licenses

Since 2004 there has been no alterations sing import licenses for a figure of merchandises. Import license are required harmonizing to the type of merchandises being imported as discussed above ( harmonizing to the Consumer Protection Act ) . Normally the establishment responsible for the imports control is the Ministry of Commerce and the bringing of the specific certifications is carried by the undermentioned organic structures:

Table 3: Exercise responsibilities on alcoholic merchandises

Table 4: Merchandises or classs of merchandises for which imports licenses are required

The importing of pharmaceuticals is capable to strict control from the Ministry of Health which has drawn up a list of indispensable substances to run into the state ‘s demands. Drugs like psychotropic drugs and narcotics, which are capable to international control under International Conventions, are imported through an import-export licensing system. The measures of these drugs are purely controlled in order to guarantee their legitimate usage. Any imported pharmaceuticals must be registered for sale in their state of beginning. All companies involved in the importing of pharmaceutical merchandises for sale on the local market demand to be registered with the Pharmacy Board before any import is carried out. Drugs imported for the populace sector have to travel through international stamps.

The importing of merchandises like pesticides is now regulated under the Dangerous Chemical Act and import licenses are now delivered by the Dangerous Chemicals Board. Chemicals such as pesticides require blessing by the board prior to imports. Any new petition for importing of pesticides goes through a series of trials over a certain period of clip before import licenses are granted. Despite these controls there are instances of illegal imports which have been reported by operators in this sector.

Safety Standards

Merchandises which require safety criterions are chiefly weaponries, ammo, dynamite and explosives which are capable to command. The safety criterions applicable are the same as British 1s. The establishment responsible for the control of norms chiefly for nutrient and other points is the Mauritius Standards Bureau.

Discussions are on traveling to put up safety norms sing electrical merchandises.

Import Monopoly or exclusive importer

The state of affairs of some merchandises in this class since 2004 has remained about the same. In

Mauritius, there are a few merchandises for which imports are carried out by specific parastatal

organic structures. The chief ground buttocks is safety and security of supply but which is officially presented by the governments as strategic grounds. The undermentioned administrations are responsible for the importing of relevant points:

The State Trading Corporation

The Agricultural Marketing Board

The Tobacco Board

The Tea Board

The Mauritius Sugar Syndicate

The State Trading Corporation ( STC ) has a monopoly sing the importing of Petroleum merchandises, Wheat Flour and Ration Rice ( luxury rice e.g. basmati type is liberalised ) . The importing is carried out through international stamps. This establishment besides imports cement which is nevertheless carried out on a sharing footing with the private sector. The distribution of merchandises imported by the STC is carried out through the private sector. However due better criterion of life, the ingestion of rice is more towards luxury type rice. The inquiry of monopoly is hence significantly reduced at the rice degree. The Agricultural Marketing Board controls and is the merely authorized regular importer of the

following controlled merchandises: murphies, onions and Allium sativum. It besides controls merchandises such as murphy seeds, Curcuma longa, and cardamon. In fact control on murphies, onions and Allium sativum is controlled chiefly to protect the local manufacturers and guarantee a monetary value stableness of these points. Some merchandises where The AMB was the exclusive importer boulder clay 2005 have been removed. These merchandises include land nuts, dried chilis, beans and ginger.

The Tobacco Board regulates the purchase of locally grown baccy which is so sold to the lone coffin nail maker in the state which is the British American Tobacco Plc Ltd. Sale monetary values are based on production costs determined by the Board. In the instance of imported baccy inputs for the production of coffin nails by the British American Tobacco an import license delivered by the Tobacco Board is required. The export of tea is controlled by the Tea Board who issues export licenses. The exportation and importing of sugar in Mauritius has to travel through the Mauritius Sugar Syndicate. The latter is the lone importer and provider of sugar for domestic ingestion. The function of the Sugar Syndicate is nevertheless to market and export all locally manufactured sugar.

Benefits of Non-Tariff Measures

Import Licensing for Economic Reasons

Import licencing strategies implemented for economic intents are ways to command import flows, holding similar effects as import quotas. This type of strategy was used in the yesteryear as a manner to command balance of payments.

Import licensing that is provided based on “ domestic handiness ” , which is a signifier of import licensing that imposes limitations on imports to the extent that the goods imported are “ similar ” in type and quality to merchandises made locally. Those limitations aim to advance the development of a local fabrication base through import permutation, and at the same clip non inexcusably curtailing houses from obtaining needed merchandises which are non available locally.

Import Licensing for Non-Economic Reasons

With regard to import licensing intended for non-economic intents, these strategies are used to implement broad assortment of ordinances related to national security, protection of wellness, safety, the environment, morality, faith, rational belongings and conformity with international duties.

Similarly such licensing demands may be used for chemical and pharmaceutical merchandises. For illustration anterior mandate by the competent bureaus can be required for controlled or restricted drugs in order to guarantee that the imported substance meets the domestic medical and scientific demands and that the drugs remain in the legitimate distribution channels.

Furthermore licensing can be used to modulate the import of vehicles for environmental grounds like to battle air pollution ) , route safety or consumer protection. A state may therefore necessitate a 2nd manus vehicle to run into certain conditions like for illustration the vehicle may non be older than three old ages from day of the month of industry.

Yet in certain other instances like licensing can be used for fabric merchandises to let merely imports that have undergone fumigation ( pest control used to end plagues ) or for telecommunications equipment for grounds of compatibility with established criterions like electromagnetic compatibility ) .

The ascend of NTMs holds particular significance to developing states. These states have been meeting troubles in accessing developed state markets because of restrictive criterions, onerous ordinances, and expensive conformity costs. Therefore, it is an opportune clip to reflect on the current state of affairs sing NTMs, to measure the extent of the job, and to propose policies for its branching.

Trade barriers ( duty and non-tariff ) in finish states have important impact on developing states ‘ exports because these steps impose extra cost on such exports.

NTMs have been designed in such a manner that merely the developed universe that is supposed to profit from it. Developing states are the large also-rans. NTMs are killing universe trade and non leting states to vie on a flat playing field.

One illustration that can be used to show the fact that developing states are enduring from NTMs is how African cotton husbandmans are hurt by subsidies given by the US authorities to its cotton manufacturers. American husbandmans net income by turning more cotton since the U.S. authorities has promised them a fixed monetary value no affair how much they produce. But American subsidies cause the market to be flooded with cotton, harmonizing to an industry expert in Benin, Bernard Adikpeto. “ Because the U.S. subsidizes its cotton production, its husbandmans put a excess of 1 million metric tons in the market in 2001, taking to a bead in cotton monetary values. ”

On the other manus, African husbandmans do non acquire any subsidies and therefore they are hit hard when cotton monetary values autumn in the US market. Consequences are particularly bad because this harvest is a important beginning of income in states of Central and West Africa.

Anti-dumping steps:

Non-tariff barriers to merchandise ( NTBs ) are trade barriers that restrict imports but are non in the usual signifier of a duty. Some common illustrations of NTB ‘s are anti-dumping steps and offseting responsibilities, which, although they are called “ non-tariff ” barriers, have the consequence of duties once they are enacted.

“ Dumping ” is defined as a state of affairs in which the export monetary value of a merchandise is lower than its merchandising monetary value in the exporting state. A deal sale, in the sense of ordinary trade, is non dumping. Where it is demonstrated that the dumped imports are doing hurt to the importing state within the significance of the WTO Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 ( “ Anti-dumping Agreement ” ) , pursuant to and by probe under that Agreement, the importing state can enforce anti-dumping steps to supply alleviation to domestic industries injured by imports.1

The state ‘s infliction of an anti-dumping responsibility is determined by the dumping border — the difference between the export monetary value and the domestic merchandising monetary value in the exporting state. By adding dumping border to export monetary value, the dumped monetary value can be rendered a “ just ” trade monetary value.

When it is impossible to obtain a comparable domestic monetary value because there are none or low volume gross revenues in the ordinary class of trade in the domestic market, either export monetary values to 3rd states or a “ constructed value ” is used in monetary value comparing. A “ constructed value ” is the cost of production in the state of origin plus a sensible sum for administrative, merchandising and general costs and for net incomes.

Similarly, when the export monetary value is found to be undependable, the monetary value at which the merchandise is first resold to independent purchasers, or another monetary value harmonizing to a sensible footing determined by the governments may be used in monetary value comparing.

Local concern can vie on a fairer border in the local market as the imported goods will be of high merchandising monetary value, deriving a greater market portion if better quality goods are produced than their foreign rivals.

Subsidies:

A subsidy is a signifier of fiscal aid paid to a concern or economic sector. Most subsidies are made by the authorities to manufacturers or distributers in an industry to forestall the diminution of that industry ( e.g. , as a consequence of uninterrupted unprofitable operations ) or an addition in the monetary values of its merchandises or merely to promote it to engage more labour ( as in the instance of a pay subsidy ) . Examples are subsidies to promote the sale of exports ; subsidies on some nutrients to maintain down the cost of life, particularly in urban countries ; and subsidies to promote the enlargement of farm production and accomplish autonomy in nutrient production.

Subsidies can be regarded as a signifier of protectionism or trade barrier by doing domestic goods and services unnaturally competitory against imports until they find a scheme to derive greater market portion than the imported goods. Subsidies may falsify markets, and can enforce big economic costs. Fiscal aid in the signifier of a subsidy may come from one state ‘s authorities.

It can be argued that without non duty measures some local concerns would non be able to run as at that place would hold been immense losingss without the subsidies that the foreign states.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MORE EFFICIENT LICENSING PROCEDURES

Economic Benefits of Licensing Procedures

Problems originating from licensing can be the result or the manner the step is implemented and administered. The acceptance of efficient processs in the licensing field whether on import or export steps may be good in different ways.

First efficient processs will be leting more engagement in international trade by supplying antecedently excluded bargainers to entree international markets.

Aid in take downing the cost of trade minutess

Better the clime for investing, particularly in developing states and emerging economic systems.

Simplification of licencing operations by imposts and other bureaus can let important decreases in administrative costs like the debut of simplified information demands for certification.

Co-ordination with other bureaus and other streamlined imposts processs cut down clip.

It besides allows the authorities to implement more effectively ordinances and policies that the licensing systems implement, through more efficient direction of goods traveling across boundary lines.

This can assist command illegal motion of restricted goods like the proper protection of rational belongings rights and accomplish other public public assistance ends.

More efficient processs can besides further a civilization of co-operation between authorities and concern. Traders may hold more assurance in their dealing with imposts and other governmental bureaus if they find governments efficient and trade-friendly

Decision

The World Bank Database on ‘Non Tariff Measures ‘ ( NTMs ) , incorporating a catalogue of some 6 000 duty lines, was handed over to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Regional Integration and International Trade, Dr. Arvin Boolell, by the Ag Country Director of the World Bank, Mr. Constantine Chikosi, yesterday in Port Louis.

The Database will assist Mauritius to carry on systematic analysis of the effects of NTMs on trade and fight every bit good as facilitate exports by bettering information on NTMs in export markets. NTMs involve criterions and labelling demands for different merchandises and are put in topographic point to protect public wellness or the environment. NTMs, if ill designed or implemented, go Non-tariff barriers and can impede concern productiveness and cut down trade fight.

The 6 000 duty lines that have been catalogued and classified under the bing ordinances in Mauritius are in line with the different World Trade Organisation ‘s understandings covering with NTMs such as healthful and phytosanitary understanding, understanding on proficient barriers to merchandise and import licensing.

It is recalled that the Mauritanian Government had set up a jointly chaired Public-Private Sector Committee to measure the state of affairs sing non-tariff barriers. This Committee has been working closely with the World Bank and other stakeholders to set up the database of NTMs for Mauritius. A squad from the World Bank was in Mauritius early this twelvemonth to help the state in set uping the lasting informations aggregation mechanism on NTMs, modelled on a new categorization method that would be easy to compare and convenient to cipher trade restrictiveness.

In his reference, Minister Boolell said that the database constitutes an of import tool which will enable the state to go more competitory particularly at a clip when there is a 2nd moving ridge of crisis, the euro crisis, impacting on the economic system. For the Minister, the database should be used judiciously. It has been good established and is in line with attempts in regard of how best to streamline processs, he observed. At the terminal of the twenty-four hours said the Minister, mentioning to the database, it should be ensured that clear recommendations are made as how to extinguish any hindrances. Proper interaction between public and private sectors and the World Bank should besides be ensured, he added.

For his portion, the Ag Country Director of the World Bank, Mr. Constantine Chikosi said that the creative activity of this electronic database is the first of its sort that has been produced in Mauritius. The preciseness and completeness of the database do it an priceless tool for policymakers but besides for the concern community for whom transparence and ordinances are basic demands, he observed.

The benefits of the database are many, said Mr. Chikosi. It provides the authorities with analytical informations which is necessary to plan appropriate policies that enhance the investing clime in fight of Mauritanian concerns and facilitates informed determination on regional integrating issues such as harmonization and streamlining of non-tariff barriers, he farther stated.

As a conclusive note, it can be put frontward that so the barriers like NTM/NTB has contribute towards impeding the hiking up of companies ; nevertheless it should besides be taken into consideration that these barriers were being put as a control mechanisms in order to better pull off the imports and exports of goods.