The Gothic scoundrels Dracula and Frankenstein ‘s monster have inspired coevalss of film manufacturers, as “ the award [ of being the fictional character who has been played by the largest figure of performing artists in movie versions ] goes to Count Dracula, played to day of the month by 121 histrions, followed by [ aˆ¦ ] Frankenstein ‘s monster at 102 ” ( Film Adaptation & A ; Its Discontentments, pg. 207 ) . It was in the early 1930s, when Boris Karloff starred as Frankenstein ‘s monster in Frankenstein ( 1931 ) and Bela Lugosi appeared as the Count in Dracula ( 1931 ) that the popularity of the characters they depicted in these films exploded. Those two peculiar films have had such an impact on the movie industry and audiences that the “ avuncular ” and the “ campy tone ” sentiment of today that encompasses the monsters of Lugosi ‘s Dracula and Karloff ‘s Frankenstein are a “ step of the extent to which these figures have become icons of popular civilization ” ( Classical Film Violence, pg. 53 ) . These films are non based entirely on their literary predecessors, but instead on unrecorded theater versions that have “ already done the difficult work of paring the stuff down ” to the appropriate “ size for an eventide ‘s amusement ” ( Film Adaptation & A ; Its Discontentments, pg. 99 ) . When those faithful versions lost their freshness, subsequences with new characters and narratives, such as Bride of Frankenstein ( 1935 ) and multi-monster crossing overs like House of Frankenstein ( 1944 ) began to work the masters ‘ celebrity and scenes. However, as these “ authoritative ” Gothic films and their direct replacements lost their freshness and entreaty to audiences after the horrors of World War II, a great figure of independent film manufacturers and opposite numbers have made efforts to provide to witnesss by holding the “ old ” villains face scenes and jobs that are modern-day to modern times.
These loose versions were immediately distinguishable to audiences by the employment of recognizable Gothic scoundrels, but besides tend to differ drastically from the original novels and the earlier films. They have given manner to new subjects and scoundrels, which have shared similarities with their literary predecessors, but are besides different in the manner that they conduct evil to make their ends, and can be described as “ versions non of an earlier narrative ” but alternatively of a old “ character, puting, or construct ” ( Film Adaptation & A ; Its Discontentments, pg. 120 ) . An analyzation stressing on features and motives of these peculiar new, but besides familiar scoundrels and subjects in non-mainstream Dracula and Frankenstein films such as Frankenstein 1970, Flesh for Frankenstein, Blacula, and The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires reveal precisely how much these fictional scoundrels and films are merchandises of their times.
2. Frankenstein 1970
Despite the rubric, Frankenstein 1970 was really filmed in 1958. Contrary to Mary Shelley ‘s Frankenstein, which is written as a fictional history of past events, Frankenstein 1970 is based on the scientific discipline fiction fad of the 1950s, which is chiefly reflected through the force of atomic power in the film. Frankenstein himself needs “ an atomic reactor to reproduce metempsychosis ” ( F1970 31:35 ) . While the admirations of atomic power therefore replaces the novel ‘s trust in “ electricity and galvanism ” ( Frankenstein, pg. 39 ) as the key to creative activity, the film is besides non soundless in demoing the unsafe side effects of this power – both Frankenstein and his monster perish in the terminal due to radiation.
The gap scene ‘s in-film shot of Frankenstein 1970 is really self aware of the cultural effects of the Frankenstein franchise. This is portrayed by the fictional movie crew, which is making a docudrama about the “ original ” Frankenstein household in order to “ observe the 230th birthday of Frankenstein ” ( F1970 00:04:28 ) . In add-on, Frankenstein 1970 ignores the literary background of Shelley ‘s Frankenstein in favour of the dad phenomena that has surrounded the Frankenstein franchise since the 1930s by utilizing the authoritative films from that clip as a mention point. The manager of the documental emphasizes this by stating Baron Victor von Frankenstein that he “ got the whole thing figured out [ and that he wants ] [ caskets ] , epitaphs, lightning, boom and [ Baron Victor von Frankenstein ] down in the vaults, giving us the low down on [ his ] great-great-grandfather, the first Frankenstein, the 1 who created the monster ” ( F1970 00:08:55 ) .
The distance from the original novel is even more evident when the vault of the Frankensteins is revealed. Not merely does the original Frankenstein household non reside in a palace in Germany as members of the national aristocracy, but the novel ‘s Frankenstein is non named “ Richard, Freiherr von Frankenstein I ” either. The forsaking of the novel in favour of the 1930s Frankenstein films is farther manifested, when the histrion behind “ Baron Victor von Frankenstein ” is made clear in the film credits to be Boris Karloff, the adult male who played Frankenstein ‘s monster in Frankenstein ( 1931 ) and defined the animal ‘s modern image.
Baron Victor von Frankenstein is the driving force behind his animal, therefore set uping himself as the chief scoundrel of the film. He besides mirrors the authoritative film image of the “ huffy scientist, ” which is enforced through assorted points. One of these would be his pick of residence, which is the unsettling household palace that houses the Frankenstein household crypt, and furthermore, a concealed research lab below the vault. Additionally, he is besides the “ last of the house of Frankenstein ” ( F1970 00:07:29 ) , therefore transporting the load of his ascendant ‘s bequest and holding to populate with the desperate chance of non go forthing an inheritor himself. Last, he besides suffered evil himself through the Nazis, who physically and psychologically tortured him for his refusal to join forces with them during World War II. It is gratuitous to state that Baron Victor von Frankenstein is a broken shell of a adult male.
His evilness is farther alluded to when he speaks to the manager of the movie crew and expresses to them that, “ your coming here may be the solution of all my jobs ” ( F1970 00:10:23 ) . Having a dual significance, the solution to his jobs does non merely embrace work outing his fiscal jobs so that he can afford to purchase his ain atomic reactor ( ! ) , but besides because the procedure of completing his work on the animal in the concealed research lab relies on this technological device. The creepiness of Baron Victor von Frankenstein is enhanced when he so starts to express joy maniacally, followed by him playing a creepy melody on his organ for the uneasy movie crew, and besides subsequently on in his research lab, when it is made clear that he has the ability to descry on the crews ‘ invitee suites with the aid of another piece of modern engineering ; hidden and unmanned mikes.
Even though the monster does non portion many features with his literary opposite number, this 2nd scoundrel is besides created from assorted organic structure parts taken from a mortuary. The exclusion is the monster ‘s encephalon, which was the former belongings of Frankenstein ‘s pantryman Shuter, and which the Baron “ would [ instead non ] have chosen, but at least [ Shuter is ] obedient ” ( F1970 00:52:42 ) . This submissive obeisance to Frankenstein is non merely what kills Shuter when he agrees to hold himself sacrificed for the Baron ‘s experiments after he stumbles upon Frankenstein ‘s lab, but besides the beginning of evilness that springs from the monster, as Frankenstein sends it out repeatedly on a mission to bring a new brace of eyes for the sightless monster, which leaves several of the blindly-chosen movie crew members dead. But as in the original novel, it is a adult female who turns the monster against its Godhead. While the absence of a female comrade brings down the wrath of the animal upon the novels Frankenstein, it is the chief female histrion of the Frankenstein docudrama who pleads for her life and therefore manages to make what is still left of Shuter ‘s personality inside of the monster. The maintained flicker of humanity can be heard when the monster goes on to kill Frankenstein and itself by destructing the atomic reactor. While deceasing, the monstrous moans change into human-sounding suspirations, reenforcing the impression that there was still a spot of humanity and self-government left in that monstrous hull. This besides offers an interesting counterpoint to the novels animal, which did non hold any human memories and developed a complete new personality upon his birth, doing him the more complex character.
The stoping of the film is besides interesting in that it portrays Frankenstein ‘s place on the creative activity of life. While on the one manus Baron Victor von Frankenstein openly criticizes his ascendant ‘s creative activity as a “ challenge [ to ] God, the lone true Godhead for whose merciful forgiveness [ Richard Frankenstein ] prayed ” ( F1970 00:14:10 ) , he himself aspires to go godlike. This coincides with the end of the original Victor Frankenstein, who wants to “ regenerate life where decease had seemingly devoted the organic structure to corruptness ” ( Frankenstein, pg. 52 ) . However, Baron Victor von Frankenstein wants to travel farther. Just as God created “ adult male in his image, ” Frankenstein wants to make the monster “ in [ his ] image, so that the name of Frankenstein [ would ] survive ” ( F1970 1:22:20 ) , which is a end that he could non accomplish of course with a organic structure and head that have been broken by the Nazis and made him unattractive to members of the opposite sex – such as the chief actress.
3. Flesh for Frankenstein
Flesh for Frankenstein ( 1973 ) is a kid of the early 1970s, which followed the epoch of the socially progressive late sixtiess, when unfastened word pictures of sex and force became acceptable to be used in artistic ( and less artistic ) ways, found their manner into film theatres and eventually became mass-compatible. The word “ Flesh ” in the film ‘s rubric does non merely mention to the assorted organic structure parts Frankenstein needs for his creative activity, but besides intimations at the sexual subjects of this film. However, Flesh for Frankenstein is more than merely a typical development movie of that clip. Within the film, subjects such as category battle, eugenics and racial high quality play an of import function.
To be the male parent of a “ creative activity that will replace the worn out rubbish that now populates and repopulates [ Earth ] ” ( FF 00:32:50 ) is the motive behind the antagonist Baron Frankenstein. However, it can non be merely any random human-like creative activity. The organic structure parts for this intent have to be chosen in such a manner that they “ represent the finest characteristic of the Serbian ideals, ” ( FF 00:05:15 ) because “ the Serbian race comes in direct descent of the glorification from the ancient Greeks, ” who are frequently considered to be the “ root ” of Western Civilization ( FF 00:05:30 ) . Continuously making members of the Serbian race by himself in his lab is non rather plenty though, since Baron Frankenstein wants to complete the male “ Adam ” for his already finished female “ Eve, ” so that she “ will bear [ him ] the kids [ that he wants ] [ as they are ] traveling to be a true start of a new race, which is wholly created by [ him ] , reacting merely to [ his ] command ” ( FF 00:20:30 ) . Therefore, Baron Frankenstein ‘s end and motivations have an eldritch resemblance to a similar compulsion of the Nazis, who wanted to further the racial high quality of a “ white race ” while claiming to be posterities of an “ Indo-european race ” themselves, and besides the positions of Adolf Hitler, who demanded entire obeisance from “ his ” people. This thought of racial high quality is parodied in malice of the Nazis being obsessed with light tegument and bluish eyes, and the chief ideal of Baron Frankenstein ‘s Serbian race is denoted by his hunt for the perfect “ nasum, ” or intrude, for the male animal ‘s caput.[ 1 ]
The battle between the societal categories is shown with the Frankensteins stand foring the upper categories through their aristocracy, while the members of the on the job category are depicted by the villagers and retainers of the Frankensteins. Baron Frankenstein and his married woman Katrin treat the lower categories with disdain, traveling so far as to naming them “ animals ” ( FF 00:05:50 ) . However, the Frankensteins are non flimsy in acknowledging the value of the villagers when it comes to working these people for their ain agencies and strategies. For illustration, Katrin Frankenstein hires a villager as a retainer, merely so she can utilize him to carry through her sexual and emotional demands as her “ hubby does non love her [ since ] it ‘s a matrimony in name merely [ and ] for the kids, for the belongings ” ( FF 00:37:00 ) . Furthermore, Baron Frankenstein uses assorted organic structure parts from the townsfolk whom he resents so much in order to construct his ain perfect existences. Otto, the Baron ‘s helper, besides holds disdain for his maestro ‘s higher societal rank, as “ each twenty-four hours the Baron worked in the research lab, [ Otto ] worked two, ” ( FF 01:23:33 ) and he besides looks down upon Frankenstein for ne’er holding “ finished medical school ” ( FF 01:23:40 ) while still claiming high quality over his helper.
That said, being a popular topic of films after the sexual revolution of the late sixtiess, Flesh for Frankenstein uses sex in a mixture of in writing word pictures and curious topics. Besides the already mentioned sexual development of the lower class, the film besides touches on the topic of incest. It expands therefore on the original novel, where Elizabeth was adopted by the Frankenstein household and grew up as Victor ‘s sister and cousin before going his married woman. However, while there is a clear hereditary differentiation between Victor and Elizabeth, it seems to be far less clear in the film, as Katrin tells her kids that the townspeople “ state atrocious narratives about [ Baron and Katrin Frankenstein ] ” and that “ some of the things they say are true ” ( FF 00:08:50 ) . Conversely, incest is non the lone “ shocking ” subject taken up to pull in audiences. Baron Frankenstein takes advantage of his yet unfinished female animal, after which he comments to his helper Otto that “ to cognize decease [ aˆ¦ ] you have to sleep together life in the saddle sore vesica ” ( FF 00:45:35 ) . Katrin besides uses the resurrected male creative activity for her pleasance after falling out with the villager Nicholas. Both Acts of the Apostless can be considered as necrophilisms.
These subjects culminate in the terminal, as the sexual development of the male animal leads to the decease of Katrin, who is crushed and choked to decease, while the Baron has his hand-symbolizing his tool of creation-cut off by his male animal in rebelliousness, before being eventually impaled by him. With his last breath, Baron Frankenstein utters that he is “ non traveling to decease in vain ” and that his “ work has non been finished ” ( FF 01:29:59 ) . And while it foremost seems as if the Baron ‘s prognostication is unsound, for his male animal disembowels and therefore destroys himself, the Baron ‘s evilness seems to transport on by the agencies of his ain existent progeny. Influenced and twisted by their male parents taste for experimenting, they can be seen utilizing marionettes as “ guinea hogs ” in a warped version of a kids ‘s game of “ physician ” during the gap scenes of the film. In the shutting scenes, they are shown as traveling towards and raising up the captured supporter of the film, while transporting scalpels, as if to fix him for a dissection, functioning both as a fulfillment of the Baron ‘s vision every bit good as warning against kid disregard.
The rubric of the film Blacula ( 1972 ) is a mixture of the words “ black ” and “ Dracula, ” and it expanded the “ blaxploitation ” genre, which was created in the late sixtiess, into the kingdom of horror films. In blaxploitation films, “ black characters [ are ] installed in functions that in the yesteryear had been reserved for white performing artists [ aˆ¦ ] [ and which in bend ] either rendered white characters as scoundrels or marginalized them ” ( Historical Dictionary of Horror Cinema, pg. 37 ) . With its heritage in the blaxploitation genre, Blacula therefore deals to a great extent with racism and the emancipation of African Americans since the Civil Rights Movement.
Unlike the balance of the film that is meant to picture the early 1970s, the gap scenes of the film take topographic point in Transylvania in 1780, which is more than a hundred old ages before the scene of Bram Stoker ‘s Dracula. It besides sets the phase for specifying the adversaries. For case, while Blacula is seen as a force of immorality for the balance of the film, we learn that it was the original Dracula ‘s action that resulted in the vampiric province of Mamuwalde, which was the existent name of Blacula before Dracula “ baptized ” him into vampirism and gave him this mock-name. This, and the unrecorded burial of Mamuwalde and his married woman Luva set up the film ‘s Dracula as the ultimate, albeit merely shortly present, white ( ! ) adversary, while Blacula is a victim whose consecutive Acts of the Apostless of evilness are cause of the status forcefully imposed upon him. Before his transmutation, Mamuwalde seemed to be a refined gentleman with modern twentieth century positions on the value of human life. His travel to Castle Dracula was organized by his folk in the Nigerian Delta, who wanted the Count to assist set a halt to the international slave trade[ 2 ]and convey his “ ancient civilization into the community of states ” ( B 00:01:36 ) . Dracula is besides ab initio portrayed as a gentleman by offering Mamuwalde ‘s married woman a place and discoursing with the African twosome in a sophisticated mode. However, his manners are tainted by stand foring the European thoughts of the late eighteenth century, as he labels Africa the “ Dark Continent ” ( B 00:01:04 ) -which was seen in contrast to the “ enlightened civilisation ” in Europe-and he believes that “ bondage has merit ” ( B 00:02:19 ) , a place that would besides suit Bram Stoker ‘s Dracula and his willingness to command and act upon “ lesser ” existences and animals.
“ Movies with an cultural angle normally dramatize the tensenesss between the dominant civilization and the beleaguered values of a minority community, ” and the beginning of this film, which focuses on the late eighteenth century, points these out by demoing the laterality of “ white ” societies of that clip through the mistreatment of colored societies ( Understanding Movies, pg. 394 ) . Furthermore, there are intimations during the film subdivisions that take topographic point in the early seventiess that the progressive thoughts against racial favoritism of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement have non to the full penetrated into the society by so. Segregation still seems to linger, as an embalmer notes that he does non “ acquire many Whites [ at his funeral place ] ” ( B 00:21:57 ) . It is besides of involvement to observe that a blaxploitation movie can non hold a black adversary without holding a black supporter. The rubric of the supporter goes to an African American named Dr. Gordon Thomas, who seems to be a amalgamation of the battalion of personalities of supporters of Bram Stoker ‘s novel, and who besides saves the lives of awkward Caucasic constabulary officers multiple times.
Unlike the two antecedently discussed Frankenstein characters, the adversary Blacula seems to be instead close to his literary theoretical account. He uses superficial powers like Dracula does, but besides portions the Count ‘s failings. Blacula is immune to slugs, possesses superior strength, is able to turn himself into a chiropteran, seems to hold telepathic powers ( see B 01:19:00 ) , and can turn others into lamias with merely a bite. The people that Blacula has turned to lamias seem to be instead mindless and demo more zombie-like behaviours than Dracula ‘s victims. On the other manus, he besides needs to rest in his casket during the twenty-four hours, as sunlight putting to deaths him merely every bit good as fire or a interest through the bosom, and he holds an antipathy against Christian crosses. He is besides one of the few film Draculas in versions who, while non possessing the age or ethnicity of Dracula, spots a mustache merely like the Bram Stoker ‘s Dracula[ 3 ]. Still, Blacula seems to be non utterly immorality. Not merely was the vampiric behaviour forced upon him, but his lone motive for being alive steems from his feeling of love towards Tina, in whom he sees his born-again married woman.
Another interesting point is that merely like Frankenstein 1970, Blacula is self-aware of the popularity of “ Dracula, ” as his films are seen as the “ absolute creme de la creme of cantonment ” ( B 00:10:47 ) , therefore set uping besides a sort of critical meta-awareness about the quality of Blacula as a film.
5. The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires
The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires ( 1974 ) is similar to Blacula, in that its chief subject is a mash-up of different genres. In this instance, it follows the raising popularity of Eastern soldierly humanistic disciplines films among Western audiences, which was kicked-off by the popularity of histrion and soldierly humanistic disciplines combatant Bruce Lee in the early 1970s. The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires is a film that non merely exploits this popularity, but besides tries at the same clip to minimise cultural disaffection between western and eastern audiences by blending the popular western narrative of Bram Stoker ‘s Dracula with a Chinese scene, and to boot having a multi-ethnic dramatis personae of adversaries and supporters, while besides claiming to be a direct replacement to the original Dracula.
The inquiring of traditional gender functions and the word picture of interracial relationships are used as another manner to pull in female and cultural audiences. “ Feminism-also known as the Women ‘s Liberation Movement, or merely the Women ‘s Movement-was one of several hawkish political orientations that emerged during ” in the sixtiess, and with its outgrowth came along the alteration of traditional gender functions in films ( Understanding Movies, pg. 397 ) . Examples such as Faster, Pussycat! Kill! Kill! ( 1966 ) depict adult females who were merely as craft and able to contend as work forces[ 4 ], and The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires caters to this freshly socially recognized function of adult females in society through two illustrations. First, the seven Chinese supporters have a sister who is a soldierly humanistic disciplines combatant. Second, the Swedish Vanessa Buren, who insists on attach toing the two Van Helsings on their journey to the inside of China and thinks “ that a lamia Hunt would be go outing ” ( L7GV 00:34:17 ) does non keep back either when it comes to contending the undead. Both adult females therefore offer a counterpoint to the two female characters in Bram Stoker ‘s novel, Lucy Westenra and Mina Harker, who represent the Victorian ideal of adult females ( when non under the influence of Dracula ) . Furthermore, interracial relationships, which were non publically displayed until the sixtiess[ 5 ], can besides be found between the leader of the seven brothers, His Ching, and Vanessa Buren as one twosome and His Ching ‘s sister and Van Helsing ‘s boy as the 2nd one.
Dracula appears in his original signifier as the Count merely at the beginning and terminal of the film, since he forcibly takes over the physical visual aspect of the Chinese priest Kah. Bing “ the arch-vampire ” ( L7GV 00:21:14 ) , he leads the “ 7 Golden Vampires ” for the balance of the film. The motivation for this take-over of Kah is the same itchy feet that brings him to London in the original novel, as he calls his Transylvanian palace a “ suffering topographic point ” ( 7GV 05:34 ) and his impulse to desire to take “ retribution on world ” ( 7GV 06:33 ) . Harmonizing to the book, a farther motivation for his travels is to go forth “ his ain waste land – waste of peoples – and [ to come ] to a new land where life of adult male teems ” ( Dracula, pg. 266 ) so as to “ sate his lecherousness for blood, and [ to ] make a new and ever-widening circle of semi-demons to secure on the helpless ” ( Dracula, pg. 45 ) . The seven Chinese lamias seem to suit the occupation absolutely, as they lay dormant and expect person to wake them once more. Their fictional being is even supported by Bram Stoker ‘s novel, which states that “ [ the lamia ] is known everyplace that work forces have been… and in China, so far from us in all ways, there even is he, and the peoples fear him at this twenty-four hours ” ( Dracula, pg. 198 ) . However, there is a defect in the film ‘s logic, as it does non trouble oneself to depict how it was possible for Dracula to take the Chinese lamias while at the same clip being defeated by Van Helsing in the late nineteenth century, or why he still continues to be in China in 1904 after being defeated in the novel.
The seven aureate Chinese lamias mentioned in the rubric of The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires take on the function of the adversaries for the balance of the film, and differ from Dracula in some interesting ways. First of all, unlike Dracula they do non experience the demand to distribute their range of panic but alternatively concentrate their attempts on one individual small town in the Chinese state of Szechwan, which is pillaged every twelvemonth “ at the clip of the 7th Moon ” ( L7GV 00:10:51 ) and where they abduct seven immature adult females, who are non merely merely bitten, but sacrificed together in an unexplained rite. Furthermore, they are “ non constricted to Christian immorality ” ( L7GV 00:45:40 ) like Dracula, but alternatively they can non touch points or images that are sacred to the “ Lord Buddha ” or blessed, or else they burn to decease ( see L7GV 00:19:07 ) . Third, they all need to transport a aureate “ life medallion ” in signifier of a chiropteran, which is a symbol of their undead life force. If taken off, they easy lose power and are defeated and can non be restored unless the medallion is retrieved by one of their undead brethren. They besides rely on horsemanship and usage blades to contend, while the novel ‘s Dracula relies on much more elusive methods. They besides hide their faces behind masks, since their organic structures do non look to be able to set on a non-undead visual aspect like Dracula does. Finally, they do non merely work entirely, but are able to cite other sorts of undeads, such as living deads.
The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires was a innovator in the coaction between Euro-American and Asiatic film, and would be closely followed by rubrics such as the Western The Stranger and the Gunfighter ( 1974 ) and the blaxploitation film Cleopatra Jones and the Casino of Gold ( 1975 ) . Their genre-bending heritage can still be felt in modern-day times through celebrated box office hits like Shanghai Noon ( 2000 ) and Rush Hour ( 1998 ) .
Whether it is the science-fictionesque Frankenstein 1970 with its subjects of atomic power, self-awareness of the Frankenstein dad phenomena, and the shadow of Nazi Germany still fresh in memory in the 1950s ; the artsy and exploitatory Flesh for Frankenstein and its word picture of category battle, eugenics, and matured sex and Gore ; the blaxploitation film Blacula turn toing racial jobs of the past and ( so ) nowadays, or the Eastern The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires contending for and with feminist power and interracial relationships ; the subjects in those non-mainstream films differ widely from their literary predecessors, and these differences are extremely influenced by the times and fortunes, but besides the acknowledgment and variegation of possible mark audiences these films were created for. And as for the physical and psychological alterations in the cinematic progeny of the original characters Dracula, Frankenstein, and Frankenstein ‘s monster, it can be said that, “ how and why what frightens us is in some respects historically conditioned and may so alter over clip, ” which is precisely the ground why these apparently “ timeless ” scoundrels are dragged out of their retirement every now and so and presented to us with a fresh makeup, so that they can populate up to their awful repute and the movie-producing companies ‘ fiscal ends ( Horror Film and Psychoanalysis, pg. 44 ) .