Urban fiction is a reasonably new literary genre that developed in the late 1970 ‘s. However, some critics indicate that this type of literature is a contemplation of stereotyped images produced by hip-hop civilization. Some People argue that it is a bad influence, and that we should lodge with the classical African American authors that deal with racism, bondage, Harlem, and other issues. In malice of this, this type of interior metropolis urban fiction shows a really existent way that people choose to ship on. Author Shannon Holmes writes in his debut to Never Go Home Again, an urban novel, that “ My novels show life and decease as they play out on the streets of urban America. But it ne’er was ( nor will it of all time be ) my purpose to hold my novels become guidebooks on anarchy ” ( Holmes 2 ) . Holmes infers that this type of literary canon demonstrates world. Holmes has experienced the life of drugs and fast money. He was incarcerated at a immature age, and found Gods and the gift of composing in prison. In Shannon Holmes ‘s Never Go Home Again it is illustrated through the chief character Corey that immature African Americans in urban civilization are influenced by many grounds. Peer force per unit area, linguistic communication, the codification of the street, racism, prison, and instruction are all lending factors to Corey ‘s life style, which is the merchandise of erudite weakness projected by urban civilization and repression in a white adult male ‘s universe that controls our societal and judicial systems.
In his book Never go Home Again, writer Shannon Holmes writes of Corey Dixon, a immature African American who succumbs to the life of drugs, hustling and fast money. Although his female parent and male parent attempt to learn him good, Corey does n’t recognize his true destiny until he is sitting in the Riker ‘s Island prison, populating through the past experiences that have led him at that place. First of all, Corey comes from a reasonably good place. The book states “ Both his parents worked long hours in an attempt to do terminals meetaˆ¦They typically worked six yearss a hebdomad, while Corey did whatever he wanted to make. For eight hours a twenty-four hours, he raised himself ” ( 50 ) . Corey portions the same destiny of many immature Americans, called “ latch-key ” childs. Many parents must travel to work to back up their households, which leaves kids experiencing left out or starved for attending. However, Corey is lucky to hold both of his parents, and is non populating in the worst portion of the ghetto. But, he learns from a immature age that “ Contrary to popular belief, the system of justness is n’t blind ; it sees really good the colour of a adult male ‘s tegument ” ( Holmes 10 ) . Corey and many of the other characters in this novel seem to hold a aslant position of our society, one where the white adult male is ever in the place of authority- and all offense and penalty permeates through them as the bulk.
Corey is merely a adolescent, so he is majorly influenced by the people he hangs out with. Although his parents provide him with advice to acquire a existent occupation and remain out of problem, he chooses to hang out with his friends. His pa warns him in a talk, “ Your record is like your tegument, you got ta wear it for lifeaˆ¦Son, do n’t merchandise your tomorrow for todayaˆ¦.it aint worth it. There ‘s merely two things ready for you now: gaol and the cemetery. Which one is it gon na be? ( 119 ) . Corey ignores this advice and finally begins to hold jobs:
Trouble was nil new for Corey. All through his disruptive stripling old ages, he was running afoul of the jurisprudence. Now at 16, all the soil he ‘d done had eventually caught up with him. He had succeeded in acquiring into major problem. His sudden going from place, subsequent apprehensions, and at hand gaol clip that hung over his caput signaled his reaching into the large clip. Harmonizing to New York State jurisprudence, he was an grownup, though he was still really much a kid. However, he would be held accountable for his actions. He was traveling nearer and closer to the suicide that his parents had predicted for him, if he kept making what he was making, populating the street life ( 12 ) .
What is interesting here is that Corey knows that if he continues to populate the street life that he will finally self-destroy. Corey learns that in order to get easy money, he has to sell drugs on the street. Holmes states, “ You took the cutoff to the American dream. Yup! You tried to acquire rich merchandising drugs ” ( 26 ) . Harmonizing to one of Corey ‘s equals, “ Work iz merely a slang word we use fa drugz on district attorney blockaˆ¦You got ta start hangin ‘ on the block more oftenaˆ¦Dis whut e’rybody ‘s sellin ‘ or smokin ‘ , cleft! … A hundred dollars fa doin ‘ nuttin ‘ , it’z easy money ” ( 52-53 ) . The American dream is synonymous with money. When Corey realizes he can do so much money in such a short period of clip, he becomes really funny about the universe of drugs:
A hundred dollars a twenty-four hours was a batch to some grown work forces, allow aloneaˆ¦ a child from the undertakings. Corey was n’t spoiled, but he did n’t hold everything that he wanted. He had everything he needed, but now that was taken for granted. Corey was likely one of the most fortunate childs in the projectsaˆ¦Corey had more parental counsel and fiscal security than any of his friends. He did n’t hold to make illegal activities to acquire the bare necessities in life. Yet he yearned to make what his friends did, run the street. Corey was intriguedaˆ¦ ( 53-54 ) .
Plenty of childs fall into this life style led by their equals, which contradicts the premise that all troubled teens come from broken places. In David Wilson ‘s article “ Black on Black Violence: The Conservative Discourse, ” he talks about black adolescents stating “ These childs, like others, were “ blank-slate ” existences, but unlike others, were intuitively drawn to the openness and raggedness of the street. The enticements of drama and immediate satisfaction intoxicated themaˆ¦Shunning the disciplinary stenosiss of school, work, and place, the street became their affectional place ” ( Wilson 40 ) . So, alternatively of concentrating on their ain households, they start to develop their ain civilization and primary household with their friends. As Holmes ‘s points out, “ Corey ‘s engagement in the drug game deepened aˆ¦Nothing excited him now more than the street life ” ( Holmes109 ) . This street life that seduced Corey had its ain linguistic communication, Ebonics.
African american vernacular englishs is spoken throughout the novel as we have seen in the quotation marks from the first paragraph. Subject-verb understanding such as “ I is ” and “ We be ” are used often, along with slang words and other slang. However, one word that represents a history of bias on one side and chumminess on the other is the “ N ” word. White people have used the “ N ” word as “ nigga ” in the yesteryear to depict slaves, and some still use it ignorantly. Black people use the “ N ” word as “ nigga ” to show friendly relationship. This is uneven to Mr. Fisher, a white adult male that Corey meets in gaol:
But one word was taboo for him or any other white individual to utilize, and that was nigger. Mr. Fisher did n’t utilize the word, but did n’t take it excessively kindly to that word being used in his presence. He thought black people were unusual for utilizing it. Their ascendants had fought long and hard, boycotting and picketing, merely to acquire Whites to handle them reasonably, like peers and human existences. He could n’t conceive of why the younger coevals so casually tossed the N-word around as if it were nil. He knew that they frequently used it as an affectionate salutation but did n’t understand why ” ( 25 ) .
Even though Corey and his equals use African american vernacular englishs in the novel, Standard American English is the linguistic communication used by corporate America. Lois Tyson references in Critical Theory Today that “ Black Vernacular English ( BE, besides called African american vernacular englishs or African American Vernacular English ) , which fulfills all the grammatical standards of a echt linguistic communication but is still dismissed by many white and some black Americans as substandard or wrong English instead than recognized as a linguistic communication in its ain right ” ( Tyson 363 ) . Many people think that that deficiency of grammatical instruction consequences in Ebonics. David Wilson shows how mainstream conservativists view African american vernacular englishs stating “ The offering ignorance with conspicuously bad linguistic communication shows portion animal, a sort of monster ” ( 42 ) . However, there are many educated people that speak this linguistic communication in a non-formal environment, and exchange to Standard American English in a professional environment. With that being said, most of us change our linguistic communication to accommodate to the state of affairs they are in. This type of linguistic communication originates from civilization, films, music and telecasting. However, it will likely ever be viewed as unprofessional in a concern environment. We see this linguistic communication though, as communicating in a civilization where the codification of the streets is more of import than most of us think.
Another thing that is an influence in Corey ‘s life is “ The Code of the Streets. ” A “ codification of the streets ” is a impression that in urban civilization “ bros ” come before “ hoes ” and ratting out person can acquire a individual killed. This is exemplified in Never Go Home Again: “ There was a stating on the street: Snitches acquire stitches, put in organic structure bags and found in ditches ” ( Holmes 116 ) . This causes utmost force per unit area in Corey ‘s life, force per unit area so great that he adapts his whole life to follow this codification instead than the codification set by mainstream society. Corey lives in a New York City ghetto, where force and poorness run amok. Harmonizing to the United Stated Department of Justice, research indicates that “ the emphasis of life in a hapless and violent environment can do immature people to follow the codification of the street as a lifestyle usher ” ( two ) . We see this usher in the novel within the friendly relationship between Corey and Omar. Before Corey went to prison, he and his childhood friend Omar, or “ O ” had a concern set up where they were covering cleft cocaine on a day-to-day footing. Of class Corey worked his manner up to such a stature where he was foreman and “ All the fast ones of the trade were laid out so Corey could avoid acquiring round. Though they were the same age, O was a seasoned veteran of the drug game. He had gotten involved out of necessity at a immature age ” ( 90 ) . We can see their brotherlike love when Omar confesses that he would decease for Corey. Eventually Corey ‘s male parent gets fed up with his life style, and does n’t cognize what else to make for his boy stating, “ I do n’t cognize where you be or who you dealin ‘ humor. All I know is this: you ca n’t make it here no more. You jeopardizing ya ain life, every bit good as mine and ya female parent ‘s. You got ta travel. Get ya things and go forth ” ( 128 ) . The codification of the street causes his parents to kick him out, and he ends up acquiring in problem with the jurisprudence for ownership of drugs.
Corey ‘s life of hustling eventually lands him in prison on Riker ‘s Island. Once he goes to prison, the first thing he thinks approximately is racism, “ Corey idea, This is what the colour line, the racial divide, looks like. This is where it breaks down to the powerful versus the powerless, tormentor versus the tormentor, the oppressor versus the oppressed ” ( 148 ) . In gaol, Corey realizes that the white adult male controls most of the justness system. We see how Corey views bulls because of the manner they are portrayed in his civilization, “ In his universe the constabulary were the enemy, the streets taught him that ” ( 85 ) . Holmes discusses how Corey views the white officers when he walked into Rikers Island stating:
Though Corey had ne’er laid eyes on them a twenty-four hours in his life, they appeared racialist. They looked merely like the Southern racialists Corey had seen on movie crushing civil rights activist back in the 1960ss. They served as a kind of welcoming commission, a preliminary to what was to come. With the bringing of the new cargo of captives, the machine known as the system was now fed ” ( 169 ) .
Holmes reminds us through Corey of the unfair history that African Americans faced in the yesteryear. Corey realizes that the American dream is different for the black adult male than the white adult male, and it ever has been:
Corey went from reading black literature to reading about white America and the confederacy theoriesaˆ¦Corey read how Joe Kennedy made his luck during the Prohibition Era, when selling intoxicant was illegal. This adult male made wealths untoldaˆ¦Corey thought the black adult male would ne’er hold the same sort of success making anything illegal like that. The black adult male ‘s American dream would hold turned into a incubus a long clip ago, as his was making now ” ( 186 )
Corey knows that something is incorrect when a white adult male can make illegal things and acquire off with much easier than a black adult male can. Even though Corey realizes this cultural divide with black and white people, Corey does like Mr. Fisher, who is a individual of authorization, and his compassion lets Corey cognize that a human connexion still exists. He asserts “ Caring peopleaˆ¦within the Department of Corrections reaffirmed Corey ‘s belief that non all white people were racialists or Satans ” ( 24 ) . He learns morality and the jurisprudence from Mr. Fisher who encourages him to read books and understand the corrupt Torahs of the judicial system.
Along with Mr. Fisher, another inmate, Tate, gives Corey good advice. He tells him to give up the life of the street, acquire a regular occupation, and settle down into a good place. He goes on to remind Corey that in order to crush the white adult male at his ain game, he must educate himself to acquire in front. Tate emphasizes that “ the lone manner you can get the better of them is with a pen. Have n’t you of all time heard the pen is mightier than the blade? ( 240 ) . He continues to rede Corey against selling drugs stating:
Do n’t travel catapulting dat shit. If you do, gaol or the cemetery will be waitin ‘ on youaˆ¦It ‘s district attorney biggest signifier of prophylactic known to the black adult male. They keepin ‘ us from reproducing our ain sort. By locking our dumb buttocks up. Corey, go place and do the right thingaˆ¦Remember da drug game is dead. ..I seen brother state on brother and boy Tell on female parent. It ‘s every adult male for himself. This younger coevals done changed for the good. Honor and regard are a thing of the past. Now it ‘s a soiled game. Drug traders do n’t turn old ( 246 ) .
Tate realizes that there is a job in this state when the prison system is so imbalanced. He advances that a relevant instruction is the lone manner to acquire past stereotypes and racism. However, along with Tate ‘s good advice comes the bad.
The instruction that Corey learns on the streets continues inside the four walls of Riker ‘s Island Prison. He learns the protraction of the streetwalker codification from Doc. Doc advises Corey to ne’er work for person, but to develop his ain crew to sell drugs- that manner he can derive all the money and the power. He advises Corey about life after prison stating:
After Dis, if you should take to travel dat path once more and interrupt district attorney jurisprudence, ne’er work for a nigger. Work wit a nigger. Use him as a stepping-stone, a come-up. Always keep ya oculus on the award, on ya ain crap! In clip thingz alteration. Roles contrary. Da weak become strong. Good bends ta bad. Boyz become work forces. Da merely constant in life is alteration. You wo n’t be da same lil child digital audiotape you came to da joint as. You ‘ll turn physically and mentally. Ya head set will alter… be a leader non a follower! If you gon na be an Indian be a Chief! Shorty, gaol ai n’t nuttin ‘ but school. So learn. It ‘s the school of Hard Knocks. Outside of a college university, an institute of higher acquisition, Dis is the second-highest institute of larning on the face of this Earth. Believe that! ” ( Holmes 165 ) .
It is highly interesting that many immature people get more of an instruction in prison than in the public school system. The job is that some public schools cater towards the traditional white in-between category instructions of history and art, but fail to spread out on things that appeal to immature people today. Granted some schools have the support to offer such plans, schools in destitute countries lack the support to supply anything but the rudimentss. Lois Tyson asserts in Critical Theory Today “ Merely over the past few decennaries have American history books begun to include information about black Americans that had been repressed in order to keep the cultural hegemony or laterality of white America ” ( Tyson 360 ) . Nevertheless, Corey hungrinesss for larning in prison. He takes advantage of the prison ‘s GED plan, but the fresh ne’er indicates whether or non he graduates.
Although Corey attempts to educate himself on both sides, many things happen in gaol that causes Corey to lose hope and stray in the incorrect way. When he is in gaol, his male parent dies, his girlfriend gets pregnant by another adult male, and Omar is murdered on the streets from a drug trade gone incorrectly. When Omar makes a drug putting to death, Holmes states in Never Go Home Again that “ Da nigger violated da codification of the streets. You live by the codification ; you die by the codification. I ai n’t gon na cast a tear fa district attorney nigger ” ( Holmes 137 ) . As a consequence, Omar gets shot by one of the rival crew members, Lord. Corey hears about this intelligence, and obeys the codification of the streets- and puts together a program to revenge. So when Corey is eventually up for word, he is scared because “ The parole board was n’t from his vicinity or metropolis. They did n’t even understand his civilization, so how could they perchance understand him and his grounds for perpetrating offense? ” ( 229 ) . However, he is finally let free. After released from prison, his lone idea is to revenge the decease of his best friend. Upon his release we learn that “ He started to experience like a merchandise of his inexorable environment ; he became criminal-minded, looking for ways to crush the system for robbing him of his young person ” ( 201 ) . It is deserving observing here that same system that is supposed to rehabilitate Corey turns him into a more experient felon.
When he is released from gaol, Corey takes his prison instruction to the street. He builds a crew from the underside up, to battle with his challenger Lord, who killed Omar. He visits Omar ‘s household and sees the hurting in their eyes. Omar ‘s sister Keisha begs Corey to revenge against Lord. Even though “ He realized that a great bulk of his childhood friends were either dead or locked upaˆ¦Nine outta 10 times, drugs kill drug users. And drug traders kill other drug traders, ” he continues to construct up his posse to take over his district of the New York ghetto ( 29 ) . Keisha shows Corey a bag that Omar would hold wanted him to hold. The bag is filled with a twelve rifles and assorted guns. Corey knows that “ Gunz is protection. Gunz is money. Gunz is power ” ( 125 ) . Corey increases his power and will even kill the competition to do a sell stating “ On a slow, cold dark like tonight, drug traders would literally fight-sometimes even kill-to make this sort of sale ” ( 132 ) . Money peers power in the streets, and scruples is of no concern. Corey ‘s crew was willing to make whatever he wanted to derive his regard. After he established his crew, he sees in them “ a despairing thrust to do money ; a thrust that merely comes from holding the deficiency of necessities ” ( 293 ) . He knows that he will be able to go on with the cleft game because the people are so aquiline on it. While revenging for Omar ‘s decease, Lord and Corey shoot at each other.
In the terminal of the novel, Corey eventually avenges his friend Omar ‘s decease. He ends up killing Lord, so he becomes disquieted about traveling back to gaol. He hides out for a piece because “ The constabulary were unable to come up with any leads. Many people were n’t surprised, believing that in the black community, bulls were every bit much the job alternatively of the solution ” ( 309 ) . However, he ends up acquiring caught. Corey decides non to travel back to gaol, so alternatively of suicide- he shoots at the bulls:
Corey knew he was n’t traveling back to prison. He could n’t stand to make all that clip. This clip the declaration would be different. He spun around, seizing his gun, indicating it in the way of the constabulary officers. They began firing immediately, believing that they were traveling to be shot. Corey was n’t traveling to hit them though. He knew what he was making. Five gunfires riddled Corey ‘s organic structure. The constabulary did him a favour ” ( 316 ) .
Alternatively of populating a life in gaol, Corey decides to stop his ain. Holmes ends the novel with the phrase “ Game Over ” ( 317 ) . Possibly if Corey did n’t see life so heedlessly, he would hold survived. Holmes touches on this issue in his epilogue. He asserts:
It ‘s apparent that something is really incorrect with a image that shows so many immature black work forces in gaol, that shows so many violent scenesaˆ¦taking topographic point in the black community. Why is that? African Americans make up 12 per centum of the population of the United States, but over 50 per centum of its prison population. Now you have to inquire yourself, how can that be? Do you truly think that African Americans commit more offenses than the other races? I do n’t. How can so few do so much? Before you go at that place and state, ‘He ‘s playing the race card’-I ‘m non. I ‘m merely naming it the manner I ‘ve seen itaˆ¦I ‘ve seen all sorts of farces and abortions of justness, committed in the name of the jurisprudence. The legal system, peculiarly the corrections section, is the biggest turning industry in Americaaˆ¦I say to you, something is non right in the halls of justness ( Holmes 320 ) .
This type of violent life style is apparent more in urban civilization than any other. African Americans that live in the undertakings or ghettos have really different lives than the African Americans in in-between category society. Peoples with lower socio-economic position have fewer chances than others. And, they are more likely to acquire involved in a life full of drugs, force and hatred. Holmes comes to the decision that the life of drugs is a pick, but the manner justness is served is unjust. After discoursing this novel, it ‘s easy to see that Corey ‘s life style was a consequence of erudite weakness and repression in a white controlled universe.
In “ Erudite Helplessness, ” by Ken McLeod, he asserts “ Erudite weakness consequences from being trained to be locked into a system. The system may be household, community, civilization, a tradition, a profession or an institutionaˆ¦and those beliefs, positions, activities and tabus are trained into the people that comprise the system ” ( McLeod 2 ) . Learned weakness for Corey was the things he saw and experienced as an urban young person. He knows that his parents want the best for him, but Corey is uninterested in that because the environment he lives in undertakings images that leave him hopeless. The spirits shop on the corner, the low unemployment rate, a cleft caput purchasing drugs, the pack bangers, the low income undertakings, and the public assistance system are all factors that pervade urban civilization. The United States Department of Justice indicates that “ high rates of poorness, joblessness, force, racial favoritism, disaffection, misgiving of constabulary and hopelessnessaˆ¦have instilled anti-social attitudes and values in some occupants ” of urban metropoliss ( 6 ) . When Corey witnesses these hopeless images, he besides feels repressed by certain elements of white controlled societal and judicial systems.
Our divided societal system is a consequence of a white controlled conservative media. Harmonizing to David Wilson ‘s article “ Constructing a ‘Black on Black ‘ Violence: The Conservative Discourse, ” Wilson views this civilization of African American young person as a consequence of conservative positions that have dominated society for so long. He asserts that conservative journalists and the media have painted the image of worsening metropoliss stating:
This rolling ‘grass-roots ‘ oculus captured force, upset, and disfunction in streets, corners, stores, Parkss, and schools. Looks, strolls, Acts of the Apostless, and imaginings became dexterously read and understood. Racialized people were made to uncover true essences-primitivism, impulsiveness, moral deficiency-that they could barely command ( 38 ) .
So in other words, most of the media is projecting the dwellers of the interior metropolis to be every bit nefarious to the remainder of society. So if person is portrayed as wicked over and over once more, they will finally ensue to playing out that function. Wilson continues saying “ The influence of Blackness, interior metropolis infinite, ghetto worlds, and downtrodden economic circumstance. “ Black on black force, ” in conservative custodies, would non be known by nuanced review but by luxuriant codification ” ( 39 ) . He continues to advert that the media portrays interior metropolis young person as the “ lower class ” instead than the lower category. This asserts that this type of civilization is lower than anyone ; they are at the bottom round of society, and would hold no opportunity of being successful in the existent universe anyhow. The job is that most of this “ lower class ” consists of minorities, non white people. In add-on, telecasting, films and music all portrays “ immature hoods ” that are nescient, ruthless and uncaring. Sometimes, they show “ ghetto success stories- ” like the prison inmate that moved on to go a celebrated histrion, vocalist, or athlete- but normally what they show ends up reenforcing a negative stereotype in the first topographic point. In Culture Wars, Nelson George concludes that “ White racism, one and indivisible, is the rule of American societal organisation ; and inkinesss are its ageless objects: white and black people are in a province of de-facto war ” ( 153 ) .
Along with a white controlled societal system, Corey besides feels repressed by a white controlled judicial system. Corey realizes this system is a white adult male ‘s system that dates back to the yearss of bondage and unfairness. It is debatable that there are more black people in prison than there are Whites. Lois Tyson provinces in Critical Theory Today:
the misconception held by many white Americans that a disproportional figure of African Americans are felons, in other words, that criminalism is an African American traitaˆ¦It takes merely five gms of cleft cocaine ( used predominately by black Americans ) to trip a five-year compulsory prison sentence. However, it takes five 100 gms of pulverization cocaine ( used predominately by white Americans ) to trip that same five-year mandatary prison sentence. Discriminatory Torahs like these draw attending to the usage of drugs in hapless black vicinities, a state of affairs that has resulted in increased constabulary surveillance in these countries, while drug usage in white vicinities is mostly ignored. In fact, in the United States the bulk of drug users ( of all sorts ) are white. Yet, the bulk of captives are black ( 368 ) .
Robert Lee asserts in his text Multicultural American Literature, “ The old ages since the 1960 ‘s carry the on-going accusal of metropolis ghetto, drugs, pack civilization, and a black prison population every bit disproportional as was black frontline military personnel in Vietnam. Black rural poorness, in Mississippi as in the remainder of the Deep South remains fact. Rankles persist over discriminationaˆ¦ ” ( 69 ) . Issues like that are n’t reverberations of the yesteryear ; they are still rampant in our society. Drugs and force exists in the black inner-city more presents than of all time. When urban young person realize that they separated in these societal and judicial systems, it creates erudite weakness. Learned helplessness strains a reoccurring rhythm of indolence, trust on a public assistance system and reduced motive. When a individual resorts to doing easy money and pack banging, it frequently consequences in force.
However, force like this is non a new thing. This type of violent sub civilization has been emerging for rather some clip. Younger coevalss are experiencing the hurting of a corrupt universe, which crosses cultural lines. The chief job is both repression and hopelessness because the system is slow to alter. Harmonizing to the National Network on Preventing Crime in the Black Community, “ Minorities are over represented in the condemnable justness system but underrepresented in the instruction, economic and societal systems ” ( 1 ) . What if the bulk put themselves in the minority ‘s places? Would they do money the easy manner if they could n’t obtain a occupation due to their race, faith, or credo? Through Corey in Never Go Home Again, we can admit that urban young person are a merchandise of their environment. Peer force per unit area, idiom, street codification, racism, parturiency and acquisition are all factors. White adult male controls most of the bulk and erudite weakness is a merchandise of that. Segregation still exists in our media, our prisons, and our societal environments. Urban young person realize that there are still black countries of town, black nine and black schools. Even though things are altering, we must inquire if things are altering for the better. We need to go on to supply a footing of morality and hope that our young person abide by it in some manner. Ultimately the societal, economic and educational barriers between mainstream society and the lower class demand to be broken before a better apprehension is achieved.