Viability Of New Provinces History Essay

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The first ideological province of the World ; Pakistan since its independency in year 1947 followed the construct ‘ for electing the members of legislative assembly / parliaments till the clip of West Pakistan felt insecure of retaining their seats in the parliament against the former East Pakistan opposite numbers. Anticipating their at hand licking in the so extroverted elections, West Pakistan was declared a separate Unit of measurement and given more figure of seats in the Parliament based on population ratio. The state, since so, has been the victim of personal / party comfortss instead than keeping a cohesive national attack towards declaration of issues confronted by the state from clip to clip. It does non necessitate to be over emphatic that the state continues to confront serious administrative and economic issue in the absence of feasible and prudent administrative division. The demand to hold or non to hold new states has ever fell quarries to the political and personal expedience instead than the critical national demand.

Over the past decennaries, power hubs and most of the development financess out of national / provincial budgets have been circulated / spent within the limited provincial / federal capital and selected topographic points holding direct bearings to personal repute / amenitiess. This attitude, coupled with the media blitz, vested involvements of non staged histrions and administrative trouble caused to the people of distant metropoliss to near the provincial capitals have the possible to escalate the sense of want amongst the underprivileged public of distant / less developed countries within each state. The bing province of want can give farther rise to the ethno-political and lingual divide. The rapid population has merely compounded the administrative and socio political personal businesss. Necessity of creative activity of the new states however, it would hold considerable economic concerns. The other school of idea considers that by bettering the administration in bing administrative apparatuss of divisions and territories, apportioning sufficient development financess to instantly set about major undertakings in disadvantaged countries would make the fast one.

Apropos the above mentioned facts, the inquiry of holding or non holding new states, along with its constitutional, political, structural, socio-economic and national deductions demands to be exhaustively and dispassionately. Nexus to above, carryout a elaborate analysis for the viability of new states vis-a-vis bing system, while proposing a far-sighted manner forward.

SUB THEME

In the recent old ages, cultural and political jobs have been on the addition in Pakistan. Amongst a host of factors, mal-governance and deteriorating economic system state of affairs are considered the major causes of the discord. Coupled with this, the function of spiritual parties and cultural organisations has besides come under terrible unfavorable judgment. The bing deteriorating conditions of the state and the province of want amongst the multitudes, has farther complicated the ethno-political and lingual divide. The creative activity of new states would hold considerable ethno-political concerns and will farther worsen the instability amongst the multitudes Government Institutions. Nexus to above, there is a demand to carryout elaborate viability for creative activity of new states on the footing of ethno-political constructions of Pakistan.

VIABILITY OF NEW PROVINCES IN PAKISTAN

Intro

1. Pakistan was created on the footing of two state theory. The lone bond which connected the people from assorted parts and classes/casts was the faith. Both the provinces opted to follow the Government of India act 1935, which was parliamentary in nature. Since creative activity Pakistan faced many troubles and amongst them, announcement of fundamental law was foremost. It was really imp due to two chief grounds, 1st to give way to the political forces of all parts and 2nd to give equal and rightful representation to all cultural groups. After blessing of 1st fundamental law, federal system of Government was chosen for Pakistan, with max liberty to states in head. Over a period of clip, we kept on exchanging between democratic and soldierly jurisprudence governments, and virtually no one political system has been able to boom. Resultantly this gave the worst set back of history to Pakistan in 1973.

2. Provincial structuring of Pakistan in its present form based on lingual diverseness ( Punjabi, Baluchi, Sindhi and Pakhtuns ) as the factor of territorial equation was likely non maintain in position at the clip of independency. Therefore administrative units were contrived with cultural units maintaining integral. This fact was realized in earlier timeframe and a system of one unit was introduced. However, that excessively failed and the present construction came into being as described in fundamental law of 1973. The issue has regained prominence on renaming of North West Frontier Province ( NWFP ) as Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa ( KPK ) and the reaction in its Hazara Division. It gave added drift to the demand of a separate state in southern parts of Punjab due to predominating political haggle of assorted parties for their vested involvements, resurfacing the demand for Bhawalpur and Seraiki states since the break-up of one unit in 1970. The demands may put in gesture tendency for other states in remainder of the state for which many proposals are already being trumpeted. However, there is a demand to consider upon these proposals on ethno political footing for an ultimate determination in the national involvement.

Purpose

3. To carryout in depth analysis for creative activity of new states on ethno political structural footing in Pakistan and proffer suited manner fwd for holding more states.

Sequence

4. Historical Position and Background – Part 1

5. Arguments Far & A ; Against New Provinces – Part 2

6. Analysis and Important Conclusions – Part 3

7. Recommendations – Part 4

PART- I

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND BACKGROUND

Background of the Issue

History of the issue under rating goes back to the clip of creative activity of Pakistan when assorted princely provinces and districts formed portion of Pakistan as separate entities within the new creative activity. The periodical alterations hitherto in the position of these deluxe provinces and districts have given grounds to believe for a possible alteration in the bing administrative construction / division of the state.

The administrative units of Pakistan as of today are [ update ] derived from the administrative units inherited from British India.

From independency in 1947 to 1971, Pakistan comprised two ‘wings ‘ separated by 1600 kilometres of Indian Territory. The eastern wing comprised the individual state of East Bengal. The western wing was formed from three full states i.e so NWFP, West Punjab and Sind, one Chief Commissioner ‘s Province ( Baluchistan ) , 13 princely provinces and parts of Kashmir.

In 1948, the country around Karachi was separated from Sind Province to organize the Federal Capital Territory. In 1950 name of West Punjab was changed to Punjab. The four princely provinces of southwest Pakistan formed the Baluchistan States Union in 1952.

The One Unit of measurement policy was enforced in 1955, whereby the states and princely provinces of the western wing were merged to organize the new state of West Pakistan with Lahore as the provincial capital.

Simultaneously East Bengal was renamed as East Pakistan with Dhaka as the provincial capital.

In 1960 the federal capital was moved from Karachi to Rawalpindi and so to Islamabad when it was completed, followed in 1961 by the amalgamation of the Federal Capital Territory into West Pakistan. West Pakistan was dissolved in 1970 by President Yahya Khan and four new states were created.

East Pakistan became independent in December 1971 as the new state of Bangladesh.

In 1974 the last of the deluxe provinces ( Hunza and Nagar ) were eventually abolished and their district merged with the Gilgit Agency to organize the Northern Areas and subsequently as Gilgit Baltistan state. The Federally Administered Tribal Areas ( FATA ) was formed from parts of Hazara, territories of Peshawar and Dera Ismail Khan in 1975.

The position of the Islamabad country was changed to a capital district in 1981.

In 2010, the NWFP changed its name to KPK. This alteration of name regenerated the impression of making more states in Pakistan on assorted factors and drivers.

The present twenty-four hours Pakistan ‘s administrative units[ 1 ]is as under: – : –

Ser

Administrative Unit of measurement

Population

Area ( KmA? )

Population Density

( Per KmA? )

a.

Baluchistan Province

4.8 %

39.3 %

18.9

B.

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province

12.9 %

8.5 %

238.1

degree Celsiuss.

Punjab Province

53.7 %

23.3 %

358.5

vitamin D.

Sindh Province

22.2 %

16.0 %

216

vitamin E.

Islamabad Capital Territory

0.6 %

0.1 %

888.8

degree Fahrenheit.

Federally Administered Tribal Areas

2.3 %

3.1 %

116.7

g.

Azad Kashmir

2.2 % [

1.5 %

223.6

H.

Gilgit-Baltistan

1.3 %

8.2 %

24.8

Entire

100 %

100 %

193.9

The issue of the creative activity of new states has become an fervent argument ; it has started with the KPK ( Hazara ) and Punjab ( Saraiki and Bahawalpur ) but may non get down or stop thenceforth. While back uping the creative activity of new states may look an easy manner out for the politicians, it is traveling to be a hard undertaking to really carve them out. Once the jinni is out it will non be possible to coerce it back into the bottle. Like creative activity of new territories, add-on of states would go a political calming tool in a tally up to each election. At the terminal of the twenty-four hours, state is likely to stop up holding a provincial map really near to an bing administrative entity called ‘Division’.Pakistan-New-Provinces.jpg

Political Structure of Pakistan

Federal Form of Government and Implications on Provinces. Pakistan is a federation by fundamental law 1973. The 1st and first characteristic of the federalism is the being of two sets of fundamental law including national / province and regional or provincial. Each is free to work within its ain defined field. Assorted characteristics of the federal system, which are its kernel and clearly bespeak our restrictions, are as under: –

It maintains a written fundamental law which set up the relationship between federations assorted elements.

Division of powers between federation and assorted entities is on regional / territorial footing and written in jurisprudence. It does non hold some specific expression and every state has made it as per its ain demands.

Federal system believes in de-centralized of powers.

Common characteristics including the being of independent bench.

It is an effort in heterogenous societies to advance henhouse and coordinated in the societal, political, economic system and disposal Fieldss every bit good as regard and adjustment of diverseness for assorted constitutional units.

Certain factors which facilitate the smooth map of federalism including: –

Unit of measurements must portion the sense of community.

There should be no crisp inequality in size, resources and population.

Equitable sharing of economic system resources.

Geographic adjacency.

Democratic signifier of Government and greater decentalisation.

Political Populous Support in Various Provinces for Different Political Parties. The transition of 18th amendment and the alteration in the name of NWFP to KPK has originate a sense of want in the people of Hazara which resulted in the sudden addition in the gait of the motion for the demand of Hazara state for which more than a twelve people lost their lives in April 2010. In the same vain the Nawab of Bahawalpur paced up his demand for a separate state the Saraiky state searchers want to do two territories of KPK and 19 territories of Southern Punjab to do their state. Will it be possible in the visible radiation of current party place in Punjab assembly to get two 3rd ballots for the division of the state? Furthermore The authorities that already have the blood of twelve guiltless people of Hazara on its custodies can be perceived to let it ‘s two territories to be taken by person else? All this shows that our fatherland is traveling towards a series of constitutional, political ethnic and fiscal crisis, which are anticipated as the inauspicious effects of the creative activity of new states in Pakistan. Meanwhile the maestro shot of the main curate of Punjab ( his statement of bifurcating Sindh ) has farther heated this political argument and has exposed many faces believing more in regionalism than in patriotism. Following have to be considered: –

There will be a new argument of the division of grosss, new provincial amalgamate financess should be created irrespective of the fact whether the freshly created states are able to do their manner or they will turn out to be another liability on the federation.

Let us state that the authorities admits to the demands of the new states, what will be the consequence? More cultural motions will originate and different ethnicities will inquire for separate state on the bases of their ethnicity, some force per unit area groups will press hard for the creative activity of new states that will badly sabotage the already divided sense of state goon. The creative activity of new states on the bases of ethnicity will be another blow to the already in questioned political orientation of Pakistan. Furthermore many Nawabs of the provinces ( that exceeded to Pakistan after its independency ) will follow the footfalls of Nawab of Bahawalpur that will make another quandary.

If the creative activity of new states will non ensue in the automatic betterment of the direction, if the creative activity of more administrative units on cultural lines is traveling to jeopardize the sense of state goon, if more states can non assist in bridging the gulf between the swayer and the ruled and if the generation of the figure of federalizing units is anticipated to make more constitutional jobs that would necessitate another 64 old ages to work out them so why this craze of the creative activity of new states in Pakistan has been created at the clip when the land of pure is already in crises.

Punjab its Political Dynamics with ref to Creation of Sarikistan Province. Alone Punjab histories for over more than 50 % of the population of the state while Balochistan which is holding about 50 % of the state ‘s whole country, is holding merely 5 % of the population. With the motion of Hazara state and 18th amendment at that place come up a sudden demand for Sareiki Province including two territories of KPK and 19 territories of Punjab. There are three major political parties holding different positions: –

PML ( N ) . This party is non in favor of creative activity of states in Punjab, instead want to hold broader consideration. Party wants to hold more no of states on disposal evidences and irrespective of the demands of people.

PML ( Q ) . It is an imp histrion in this scene. It is in favor of separate state in the southern portion of Punjab to capitalise on its popularity for political grounds.

PPP. Again merely to take down the popularity and Government of PML ( N ) , they are in favour of creative activity of this state.

Other Political Parities. Many little political parties such as MQM, Jamat-e-Islami and JUI does non hold considerable influence due to less no of seats in provincial assembly.

Change of Political Affiliations. Most of the MNAs maintain on exchanging their political associations as per the popular sentiments. This is non for privation of the improvement of people instead it is for ego served future political benefits. This tendency is more marked like once elections are approaching.

PART-II

ARGUMENTS FAR & A ; AGAINST NEW PROVINCES

Proposals and Political Demands[ 2 ]

There are many proposals for creative activity of more states in Pakistan. Whereas, each advocate has logic in support of the proposal, these require deliberation before taking a concluding determination in national involvement. Besides many voices, most outstanding are from Mr.Javaid Hashmi who is a celebrated Seraiki politician in Multan, the largest metropolis in the Seraiki belt. He has on old occasions supported the creative activity of new states in order to better administration quality and adm efficiency and had implied support for a Seraiki state. Harmonizing to Hashmi, a state should be created which incl Multan and Bahawalpur, adding that in the hereafter to work out jobs Karachi, Lahore and Quetta could besides be made into states[ 3 ]. The PML-N has approved in rule the formation of new states purely on adm footing Summary of assorted proposals appeared in media is as fol[ 4 ]: –

Proposal

Advocate

Motivation

Remarks

Restoration of former Bahawalpur State

Muhammad Ali Durrani, PML ( Q )

Ijaz-ul-Haq ( PML ( Q )

Political

History

Creation of Seraiki Province from Punjab

PML ( Q ) and PPP

Political

Linguistic

Creation of Hazara Province from KPK

Hazara Province

Political

History

Linguistic

Making more states from Punjab entirely on history / lingual footing

Mr Ayaz Amir

Linguistic

Making state from Sindh for Karachi and Hyderabad

MQM ( Initial Stance )

Political

Cultural

Making more states on administrative evidences

Mr Nawaz Sharif, PML ( N )

Salim Saifullah, PML ( LM )

Administrative

Making more states from all states

PML ( N )

MNA Javed Hashmi, PML ( N )

Political

Administration

Case for new states is besides based on the uninterrupted disregard of the far flung countries by consecutive governments and marginalisation of people shacking on fringes of bing states in footings of economic development builds a strong instance for creative activity of smaller units particularly with the high population denseness in certain countries doing the quality of service bringing by bing mechanisms poorer and poorer. In fact this panel feels that one major cause of ‘poor administration ‘ is failure to make new states. As such the undermentioned points besides merit attending: –

Population Growth. The 180 million population with 60 million plus entirely in Punjab demands creative activity of new states to develop the countries dawdling behind current provincial central office / large metropoliss in peculiar.

Spatial Disparities. It is critical that the new states are created to take spacial disparities, develop substructure ; set up schools, colleges, infirmaries. The creative activity of new states will let the structured development of countries hitherto forward in a province of arrant disregard due to miss of clip out their pressing demands.

Over Burdened Politicians / Bureaucrats. Paucity of clip with elective representatives / administrative officials to entertain issues facing occupants of peripheral countries. The creative activity of new states will rush up focussed dev ; dispel feelings of marginalisation and want by the people who have to wait for yearss in provincial capitals to acquire a hearing from the elected representatives and administrative officials who are busy in the issues facing mega metropoliss like Karachi, Lahore and the alone jurisprudence and order issues of Peshawar and Quetta.

Comparative Study[ 5 ]

India. In India, on the other manus linguistic communication was used as a footing of provincial divisions. As such, India reorganized and created more states on the footing of linguistic communication. In Pakistan, the authoritiess in power felt that linguistic communication was non an acceptable footing or legitimate beginning of individuality and the creative activity of new states were continuously opposed. The standards for new states on the footing of linguistic communication were felt to be a possible cause of political destabilization. As such demand/creation of language-based states was considered as tabu. Apart from their nucleus communities, these states contained big cultural minorities, which retained provincial aspirations of their ain, e.g. Pakhtuns in Balochistan, Mohajirs ( Urdu talking migrators from India ) in Sindh, Siraiki-speakers in south Punjab and Hindko-speakers in the Hazara division of NWFP. More over in Pakistan there is a demand for a two-third bulk in the two houses of parliament to make a new state, along with consent in the assembly of the states concerned. These demands have made the creative activity of a new state highly hard. In contrast in India, a simple bulk of the LokSabha is required while sentiment of the province legislative assembly has to be sought.

USA. In instance of USA, there are 50 provinces and each province has its ain fundamental law, nevertheless, the federation has its control through a federal presidential signifier of authorities with the Congress and the Senate.

Afghanistan. Afghanistan, our following door neighbor has 29 states for a population of about 28 million. The division of Afghanistan into states is based on cultural and tribal affinities and these states are controlled by the swayer in Kabul historically. The swayer in Kabul ever managed these states through the tribal hierarchy. Afghanistan has been subjected to revolutions, civil wars, insurgences and invasions but the integrity of Afghanistan remained integral due to big figure of smaller states.

Other Examples. “ While big unequal states are ever prone to engender and fuel secessionist mentalities, smaller states serve as a safety valve against such inclinations. Nigeria, confronting religion-bases secessionist war in Biafra Region in 1960s solved this job by organizing smaller states. Most of the big and average sized states in today ‘s universe have divided themselves into smaller states or provinces as “ administrative units ” . Examples are: –

China 34 states, India 28 provinces and seven brotherhood districts, Iran 30 states, Indonesia 33, Egypt 26, France 26, Germany 16, Nigeria 38, Philippines 80, Thailand 78, Turkey 81 and UK 114 counties.

Looking at the systems of other developed and developing states, we find ourselves a alone illustration of federation with about no analogue anyplace in the universe. No state, approximately equal to Pakistan geographical or population size, has so few and such big states[ 6 ].

In an unequal apparatus, no method of authorities will work. It is a system designed for palsy which we are already sing.

Rationale / Necessity[ 7 ]for Having New States

The disregard of the far flung countries and marginalisation of people shacking on fringe ‘s of bing states in footings of economic development signifier a major necessity ensuing in demand for more states. Other grounds are: –

Exponential Growth. Pakistan is the 6th most thickly settled state in the universe. The exponential growing in population demands creative activity of new states to better service bringing.

Disregard of Peripheral Areas. Neglect of many parts due to attending to provincial capitals and large metropoliss resulted in hapless administration and said disregard of the peripheral countries by consecutive Governments.

Removal of Disparities. Need to take particular disparities. Develop substructure ; set up schools, colleges and infirmaries. New Province creative activity probably to rush up focussed development and dispels feeling of marginalisation / want.

Opportunities for less Privileged. Creation of more states is thought to supply more chances for the less privileged categories.

End of Dynasty based Politics. It may take to stoping dynasty-based political relations in the state which on rise at the minute.

Ease of Access. On administrative evidences to ease hapless multitudes to hold entree to line sections near to their vicinities.

Grass Roots Level Empowerment. Making more states would authorise people at grassroots level to ease the people at their doorsills.

Creative usage of Cultural Diversenesss. Unnatural integrity tends to beef up sub-identities and have frequently weakened the committedness to Pakistani individuality. Cultural diversenesss, being inerasable constituents of the human genome, can non be cured and therefore must be endured. In fact, must be celebrated and managed creatively.

De-centralization of Power. De-centralization of power to the states is necessary. In a decentralised system, local representatives make local independent determinations towards accomplishment of its local ends aimed to climax into national good.

Governance betterment. Creation of more states may take to possible betterment in administration.

Enhancement of Unity of Nation. Dividing states into more compact, efficient and effectual units has the benefit of cut downing the importance of states, which interfere with the coherence of the state as one state.

Adm, Log and Cultural Harmony. Once the state will be divided into more compact smaller units, than it will hold positive effs. So more states are likely to guarantee the smooth administrative, logistic and cultural harmoniousness.

Estb of the Writ of the State. Failure of the province to set up its writ in many parts of the state has created a state of affairs where far-flung ignored populations are in danger of switching their commitments to the terrorists, extremists and felons.

Greater Homogeneity. Creation of more states will afford greater homogeneousness. This homogeneousness will profit the state in overall advancement.

Decrease of Congestion in Big Cities. More states means more developed metropoliss and all the population congestion towards Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar and Quetta will be reduced.

Distribution of Resources. Distribution of states into more compact and smaller units, if coordinated and agreed will ensue into better distribution of resources.

Pakistani Nationalism. It will give rise to Pakistani patriotism instead than Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto or Balochi, if the division is non based on linguistic communications.

Filtration of Bad Politicians. It likely will let the politician to earnestly work for their people once they do n’t hold ‘big brother ‘ Punjab to fault for want and jobs.

Rationale / Necessity for Not Having New States[ 8 ]

There nevertheless are certain hindrances which may impede creative activity of more states. Detailss are as following: –

Stress on Pakistani Nationhood. Fear of the emphasis that they may exercise on the unseasoned foundations of Pakistani nationhood. Peoples were killed in rioting taking up to a mere alteration of name from NWFP to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Rise to Ethnicity. May give farther rise to ethnicity. Creation of more states on the footing of ethnicity exacerbates the feeling of isolation. This is a suicidal inclination. Making new states may impact Pakistan ‘s integrity like it did to Yugoslavia.

Problem of Adm and Pol Realities. Cultural aspirations cause jobs to acknowledge administrative and political worlds. Every cultural aspiration does non warrant a state. If the move to do new states gimmicks roots, Pakistan would be de-novo decimated into several junior-grade cultural states.

Equality of Geography and Population. The grade of equality of geographical and population sizes across states may non be a balanced one giving rise to jobs of its ain.

Sindhi Nationalist Ideology. Sindhi nationalists strongly oppose division of Sindh.

Economy Difficulties. Raising financess locally would be hard peculiarly under the current non so healthy province of Pakistan ‘s economic system.

Size. There is no definition of “ right ” size of a state or province.

Division of Punjab. Punjab plays a major portion in Pakistan political relations and its division may non be accepted by influential politicians.

Poor Institutions. Smaller states would hold lesser human capital and civil society establishments and therefore might be susceptible to the job of poorer establishments.

Inter Provincial Struggle. The division of larger states may do inter provincial battle / clash for resource control.

Balkanization. With uncontrolled addition in population growing, the state can non be subjected to balkanization.

Division of Balochistan. Pakhtun state carved out of Balochistan until the more sensitive Baloch grudges are resolved would be damaging to Pakistan ‘s integrity.

However, the principle for the creative activity of ‘new ‘ states carries more weight due to the fact that development of countries which in the last 60 four old ages have been unable to demo any touchable socio-economic development, the new states will enable them to bring forth their ain resources, make their ain determinations to turn to the old ages of disregard and deficiency of focal point on countries off from the provincial Capitals and the ‘big metropoliss ‘ .

PART-III

OPTIONS AVAL AND ANALLYSIS

Options and Analysis

Above treatment directly off lead us to assorted options for creative activity of more states or for that affair more administrative units, which are mentioned as under: –

Option-1. Declare the former administrative commensurate divisions as states. However, this would ensue in creative activity of over 30 states which in the present socio-economic and political fortunes is non feasible option.

Advantages

Creation of more than 30 states.

Creation of more minor administrative units.

Well defined and set up boundaries.

Non linguistic and cultural footing.

Disadvantages

More no of administrative units.

More disbursals.

Viability of few administrative units with mention to bearing their ain load will be questionable.

Distribution of resources amongst units will be hard.

Option-2. Popular option can be to make more states on the footing of cultural, cultural and lingual lines. However, such creative activity would hold a negative impact on national coherence.

Advantages

Societies will stay united as per their civilization, cultural and linguistic lines.

No cultural or cultural or linguistic dualities.

Most political parties are expected to hold with that.

Disadvantages

Will give rise to ethnicity alternatively of national coherence.

Viability of few administrative units will be questionable.

More expensive option.

Boundary limit will be disputed.

Option-3. Another option of making new states is based on human ecology ( population and country ) and administrative evidences. This option can be considered and subsequent to national consensus states can be carved out from the bing states.

Advantages

Geographic adjacency will be ensured.

Div on administrative evidences.

Most political parties are expected to favor this option.

Disadvantages

Consensus creative activity will be diff issue.

Bdry limit will non be easy.

Viability of few states will be questionable.

Size and resource distribution will be hard.

Option-4.[ 9 ]Most of the proposed states are linguistically heterogenous & A ; geographically strongly bonded. Many smaller linguistic communications will geo besides acquire opportunity to boom because bulk linguistic communications will non be in absolute ( 2/3rd ) bulk to over shadow minority linguistic communications as in the present states. The four states of Pakistan can be farther divided into a sum of 11 states and federal capital Islamabad. However, the proposal is ambitious and does non look feasible to be implemented in position of the socio-economic and political environment of the state. It has been reproduced below as an advanced idea that after due consideration would ensue in farther deliberations and suggestions. Name callings have been suggested for the states, nevertheless, the dwellers of the new states shall hold the right to take appropriate. The option is option is as under: –

Cholistan Province

Capital. Bahawalpur.

Linguistic Composition. Saraiki, Punjabi and Urdu.

Districts. Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar and Rahim Yar Khan

Current Estimated Population. 10 million.

Logic. Geographically on the right side of the Satluj River. Linguistically heterogenous. Currently under developed & amp ; under-utilized. Much farther from the bing capital Lahore. New capital Bahawalpur will be in the center of the state. It is already linked with N5 National Highway and chief railroad line and has a high tribunal bench.

Punjab Province

Capital. Lahore.

Linguistic Composition. Punjabi and Urdu

Districts. Lahore, Kasur, Okara, Nankanasb, Sheikhupura, Gujranwala, Hafizabad, Sialkot, Narowal, and Faisalabad ( partially ) .

Current Estimated Population: 36.4 Million.

Logic: Right side of Chanab.

Gandhara Province

Capital. Joharabad ( District Khushab ) .

Linguistic Composition. Potohari, Saraiki, Punjabi and Pashto.

Districts. Rawalpindi ( partially ) , Jehlum, Attock, Chakwal, Gujrat, Mandi Bahuddin, Sargodha, Khushab, Jhang, Mianwali, Bhakkar, Laiyya, Chinot and DG Khan ( partially ) .

Current Estimated Population. 24 Million.

Logic. Under developed western Punjab country, would acquire great benefit from developing new metropoliss, like Joharabad. Joharabad is in the centre of Province. North of Joharabad is Potohari, East is Punjab and South is Saraiki dominant territories. Therefore the new provincial capital will be the meeting point of all three rich civilizations and hence will be the torch carrier of development and homogeneousness for this state. The new capital metropolis Jauharabad will non confront H2O deficits as river Jehlum passes by it.

Panjnad Province

Capital. Multan.

Linguistic Composition. Saraiki, Punjabi, urdu and Balochi.

Districts. Multan, Lodharan, Khanewal, Sahiwal, Vehari, Pakpattan, Faisalabad ( partially ) , TT Singh, Muzaffargarh, DG Khan ( partially ) and Rajanpur

Current Estimated Populatio. 24Million.

Logic. Multan is already the hub of cultural and political centre for southern Punjab. Panjnad Province will go focal point of agribusiness and dairy merchandises. Multan is besides in the center of the proposed Panjnad state and is good connected with nearby towns and metropoliss and remainder of Pakistan. Proposed Panjnad Province will hold important punjabi state in north eastern territories, Urdu in the urban countries, Balochi in western territories & A ; Saraiki in cardinal & A ; western territories.

Bolan Province

Capital. Quetta.

Linguistic Composition. Pashto, Balochi and Brahvi.

Districts. Quetta, Ziarat, Mastung, Qila Abdullah, Pashin, Lora Lai, Barkhan, Musakhel, QilaSaifullah, Zhob, Shirani, Harnai, Sibi, Kolhu, DeraBugti, Jaffarabad, Nasirabad, Jhalmagsi and Kacchi ( Bolan ) .

Current Estimated Population. 6 Million.

Logic. The Bolan state will about be same as British Balochistan of Colonial epoch. Seasoned leaders from Balochistan, like ex-Prime Minister from Balochistan, Mir ZafarUllah Khan Jamali, Mehmood Khan Achakzai have besides one time expressed their blessing in spliting Balochistan in Quetta & A ; Kalat division of 1970s. The heterogenous Bolan Province is amalgam of Pashtun, Balochi & A ; Brahvi civilization. Quetta has representation from all three civilizations.

Makran Province

Capital. Khuzdar.

Linguistic Composition. Balochi and Brahvi.

Districts. Khuzdar, Kalat, Noshki, Chaghi, Kharan, Washuk, Panjgor, Turbat, Gawadar, Awaran and Lasbela

Estimated Population. 3 Million.

Logic. Khuzdar Province is one of the richest countries of Pakistan with minerals resources. It besides has Gawadar Port, Gadani ship interrupting pace. Saindak & A ; Rekodek are besides located in this state. Proposed Provincial Capital, Khuzdar, is already good connected with Quetta, Karachi, Larkana through RCD route & A ; M8 Motorway. Within proposed Province all major metropoliss like Lasbella, Turbet, Gawadar & A ; Kalat are besides connected with Khuzdar.

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province

Capital. Peshawar.

Linguistic Composition. Pashto, Saraiki and Hindko.

Districts. Peshawar, Noshera, Charsadda, Kohat, Karak, Hangu, Lakki Marwat, Bannu, DI Khan and Tank.

Estimated Population. 9.75 Million.

Logic. Proposed Kalabagh Dam will profit southern territories of proposed KP Province, Tank & A ; DI Khan at the cost of some land of Nowshera District. Royalty from the Kalabagh & A ; Munda Dams & A ; besides the natural gas reservoir of Karak will do the state economically feasible.

Abaseen Province

Capital. Mardan.

Linguistic Composition. Pashto, Hindko, Kohistani, Chitrali.

Districts. Mardan, Sawabi, Haripur, Abottabad, Manshera, Torghar, Batagram, Kohistan, Shangla, Sawat, Bonair, Dirbala, Dirpayin, Malakand and Chitral.

Estimated Population. 13 Million.

Logic. Comprising of the northern countries, this state have the possible to truly exploit touristry industry. Tarbella & A ; Bhasha Dam would supply significant gross watercourse for the development of the state and has high potency to bring forth hydro-electricity. Mardan is chosen as the capital, because, foremost it is in two-dimensional territory and is accessible all twelvemonth about from both Hazara & A ; Malakand divisions.

Khorasan Province

Capital. Torkham.

Linguistic Composition. Pashto.

Districts. Bajur, Mohmand, Torkham ( Khyber Agency ) , Kurram, Orakzai, North Waziristan and South Waziristan.

Estimated Population. 5 Million.

Logic. Making FATA as a state will get down the epoch of economic growing and merger of the part with the remainder of the state. It will besides assist to take the sense of corruption in the people.

Sindh Uttar Province

Capital. Sukkur.

Linguistic Composition. Sindhi.

Districts. Sukkar, Ghotki, Khairpur, Nowsheroferoz, shikarpur, Larkana, Kambar, Kashmor, Jacobabad, Dadu, and Jamshoro ( partially ) .

Estimated Population. 13.5 Million.

Logic. Other than Hyderabad, interior Sindh is besides one of the most disadvantaged countries of the state, which even after holding possible in many different Fieldss is rearward and under developed. Sukkar is already the economic & A ; cultural Centre of the northern Sindh and have full potency to go one of the cardinal economic metropoliss of Pakistan. Besides it is good connected with Karachi, Quetta & A ; Northern Pakistan through route, air & A ; railroad.

Sindh Dakshin Province

Capital. Hyderabad.

Linguistic Composition. Sindhi, Urdu, Punjabi, Pashto, Balochi, Gujrati and Marwari.

Districts. Karachi, Jamshoro ( partially ) , Hyderabad, Matiari, TM Khan, Tandualayar, MirpurKhas, Umar Kot, Tharparkar, Badin, Thatta, Nawabshah and Sanghar.

Estimated Population. 26 Million.

Logic. Third largest metropolis in 1951 & A ; the historic capital of Sindh in pre-colonial epoch, has lost its glorification by being overshadowed by Karachi. Besides it is the convergence point of Sindhi & A ; Urdu civilizations, two chief civilizations of the proposed state. Besides Karachi is over burdened by being the port & A ; merely industrial metropolis in southern Pakistan. By switching capital to Hyderabad will let. Hyderabad to boom & amp ; cut down population influx in Karachi.

Federal Capital

Islamabad and Rawalpindi

Current Estimated Population. 2.5 Million.

Logic. Rawalpindi metropolis is already surrounded by Islamabad from three sides. So doing it portion of Islamabad will be a natural pick.

Option 5. The undermentioned new states can be considered as option 5: –

Proposal

Seraiki Province / Bahawalpur Janobi Punjab out of the bing Punjab chiefly consisting of southern Punjab with few territories of KPK. Bing most feasible, bulk of the people are in favor of it. Furthermore it will cut down the influence of Punjab on national scene and feeling of victimization by one state.

Hazara Province out of the bing KPK will lend more positively towards the dev of the both states.

Pukhtun country of Balochistan incl few bureaus of FATA to be declared as a state.

Karachi out of Sindh with few nearby territories of Balochistan. Most of the people will hold all disposal nearby with better chances of Karachi and rural Sindh development.

Advantages

Economy feasible.

Merely nec new states are carved / suggested.

Less economic system load.

Non linguistic and no cultural creative activity of new states.

Carving of boundary will be easy.

Disadvantages

Political parties will seek to suggest and oppose these as per their ain political involvement.

Creation of consensus will be hard.

Misc Issues. Various other issues related with the creative activity of new states are highlighted as under: –

More Expenses. There will more exp and it will be burdon on the meagre resources of that states. This will be chiefly required for: –

More disposal disbursals.

More no of CMs, Governors and burecrates.

More no of curates and their protocol.

Distribution of Resources. Their will be a serious issue with mention to limit of assorted resources and their royalty, spec H2O resources.

Cultural Issues. It will non be possible to settle all the cultural issues and hence it will ensue into giving rise to more cultural jobs.

Constitutional Deductions

National Finance Commission ( NFC ) Award. Article 160 of the fundamental law of Pakistan provinces that after every five old ages the President shall represent a NFC. This NFC will reexamine the expression for the distribution of financess, revenue enhancements and other pecuniary assets among the Centre and the States and among the four federalizing units of Pakistan viz. , Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In instance of creative activity of more states, the NFC award will hold to be drastically amended in conformity with the figure, geographical and demographic contemplations of the new states. It is traveling to be an acclivitous undertaking to get at a consensus and revise the NFC award.

Constitutional Amendment ( statute law ) . Creation of the new states involves a constitutional amendment that requires aA two tierces bulk of both National Assembly and Senate of Pakistan before the measure is sent to the President for his blessing. But before this happens, A the relevant provincial assembly must follow a provincial measure, to change its bounds, by two-thirdsA bulk every bit good. The Article 239 ( 4 ) of the Constitution clearly states this fact.A AA expression at the party place in the Punjab Assembly shows thatA PML-N has 171 members from the house of 371 members. This makes 46.1 % of entire. So it ‘s impossible to convey in such a alteration without PML Nawaz holding to it at this point in clip.

Decisions

After detailed analysis it can be concluded “ our present provincial set-up has long been the cause of political instability with an ever-looming menace to state ‘s very endurance. Recently, there have been demands for more states on cultural or lingual evidences. If this tendency were to go on, we will be left with a slackly wired skeleton of a federation with self-seeking, dissatisfied and corrupt politicians playing mayhem. Solution lies in replacing bing four states with more new disposal – determined states with some balance in their geographical and population size, free of cultural and parochial labels but still constitutionally maintaining their ethnic and national individualities integral[ 10 ]. ” More states mean: –

Promotion of national coherence.

Decrease in sense of socio-economic want.

Uniformity of development.

Better disposal and administration.

Improved security and jurisprudence and order.

More constitutional reforms will be req.

Consensus will be required for the intent of smooth passage.

This may give rise to demand of more states.

Economy disbursals will increase but more occupation chances.

Distribution of resources will hold to hold upon, otherwise it will make more distrust amongst old and new states.

While transporting out limit, linguistic, cultural and political involvements have to guarded and looked upon really earnestly.

PART-IV

Recommendation

The lone manner fwd to the advancement of the state and for improvement of all domain of life, is the distribution of big states into smaller states. The continue of federal system is recommended nevertheless with following alterations: –

11The holiness of “ separation of powers ” should be the footing of the federal system with three variety meats of the province working independently with usual cheques and balances.

12The federal authorities should retain merely 10 to 12 ministries responsible to explicate and implement national policies in of import countries, notably defense mechanism, economic system, instruction, foreign personal businesss, national security, trade, communicating, justness and jurisprudence.

13Bicameral system of legislative assembly should go on with necessary accommodations giving all states equal representation in the Senate as at present except that all seats including those reserved for adult females and minorities should be filled through direct elections.

14Both houses together will pass as in any parliamentary system on affairs of national importance such as budget and economic system, foreign personal businesss and national security, to assist the federal authorities in formulating and implementing policies on these topics.

There should be more and more degeneration of powers transfer from Centre to the states.

After elaborate analysis, Option-5 is recommended, that is creative activity of four more states as follows: –

Seraiki Province. To be carved out of Punjab with Multan as its capital and the other territories will be Bahawalpur, Rahimyar Khan, DG Khan, DI Khan, Mianwali, Bhakkar, Layyah, Muzaffargarh and Rajanpur. All the political parties seemingly have no expostulation to the creative activity of Seraiki state except PML ( N ) holding few reserve. The committee for more states have finalized its creative activity with small alterations such as name. They have proposed its name as Bahwalpur Southern Punjab and recommended Bhawalpur as its provincial capital.

Hazara Province. To be carved out of KPK with Abbotabad as its capital and the other territories will be Haripur, Mansehra, Tor Ghar, Battagram and Kohistan. There is likely resistance to this option by the ANP. However, PPP, PML-N and PML-Q and MQM are supportive of this option.

Pakhtun Area of Balochistan. To be carved out of Balochistan Province. This option can merely be exercised one time the Balochistan state of affairs is brought under control and peace returns to the country. Any early proposition would farther worsen the sub-nationalist motion in Balochistan specially once it is under Governor regulation.

Karachi. To be carved out of Sindh state. The urban coastal country of Karachi which is besides the industrial hub of Pakistan would convey significant benefits. The MQM is supportive of this thought whereas other major political parties chiefly PPP and ANP oppose it along with Sindhi patriots.

Way Forward

Formation of a National Commission. A national committee stand foring all major political parties every bit good as civil society may be constituted to analyze and consider upon the creative activity of new states and come up with recommendations. One such type of committee has already been formed but it lacks representation from diff domains of society and even a major political party, PML-N, has boycotted this committee. It seems that this committee has been chiefly formed to function the political intent of few parties. This committee should chiefly be reconstituted after the elections and it should finalize its recommendations by the terminal of 2013 and new states may be carved in the terminal of 2014.

Political Consensus. Subsequent to the recommendations of the national committee the same proposals must be debated in the National Assembly every bit good as the four provincial assemblies for geting at a political consensus that might besides propose new proposals or amendments. This procedure should be completed anterior to the budget session in June 2014.

Legalities[ 15 ]. As a effect, there would be a figure of legal deductions refering constitution of high tribunals in the new states and consequently lower tribunals. Furthermore, legal issues would originate in land gross systems, boundary limits, H2O issues, NFC and other such eventful affairs. For such affairs a high degree judicial and legal committee demands to be established for declaration of such legal deductions.

Legislation ( Constitutional Amendments )[ 16 ]. The creative activity of new states can be merely affected through statute law and constitutional amendments. A parliamentary committee with representation from attorney ‘s fraternity/constitutional experts must be established to suggest the needed amendments before June 2012.Constitutionally, the way toward making the new state is, if non wholly, but about impossible in the present province of political relations.

Financial and Resource Management[ 17 ]. This is a really of import factor where in appropriate fiscal distribution of financess and resources have to be finalised among new states. Hence, like suggested committees for other factors, a fiscal committee with appropriate representation from bureaucratism, politicians and economic experts may besides be constituted to urge steps for fiscal and resource execution.

Time Frame.

It is an highly sensitive affair that can non be dealt with in hastiness, a batch of deliberations and idea procedure has to travel into such proposals, it has to be a gradual procedure with recommendations for making one or two new states in the first two old ages followed by gradual creative activity of more states in the coming decennary. Immediate consideration should travel to the Seraiki and Hazara state.

Decision

The issue of new states has been taken up by political parties as a political stunt and lacks the people ‘s will. It seems an docket point for political point hiting while disregarding the underlying jobs of the people. New states may non bring forth the coveted consequences, but it may bring forth new jobs as the existent job has been the centralisation of power and for long states have been demanding greater provincial liberty that has been denied to them and this demand has been a cause of clash between the Centre and the states. The solution lies non in making new states but to devolve power at local degree, to give people entree to justness at the door measure and to supply them with societal security. The determination to make new states can non be taken in hastiness ; there is demand to do a national committee, to develop surveies, to accomplish understanding on distribution of resources and most significantly to see the aspirations of the people of the country who will represent the new state. Holding of referendum will be the best option to cognize their sentiment. The earlier error of renaming of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa without confer withing the people of Hazara has to be avoided this clip. The ultimate aim should be the strengthening of the federation.Ethnic construction of Pakistan

Cultural spread over in assorted states

Does it truly demand to make more states

Cultural publicity poetries patriotism

Effs of creative activity of Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa and demand of Hazara Province ( as already in NWFP Hazara ‘s does do n’t hold any obsn )

What could be footing of new division

Geographically

Demography

Linguisticss

Political

Ethnicity

OR THE GAME OF INTERESTS

Problems/issues pressing the demand of holding more New States

Equality of rights

Want of good life venereal disease

Speedy justness

More dev in several countries

More opportunities of good administration

Speedy entree to tribunals and political assy