Why economic growth may be unsustainable

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1: Explain what is meant by the term ‘non-use value ‘ . Give two illustrations. ( 3 Markss )

Economic value expresses the grade to which a goods or services satisfies single penchants and can be measured by the sum of money an person is willing to pay for a good or service.

Persons who may ne’er see or utilize a natural resource of a state can be affected by alterations in its position. Their position on the province of this resource in dollar footings is called non-use value. Economists besides use the footings passive-use value and intrinsic value to depict these penchants.

Examples of non-use value include:

National Park

The value to utilize any National Park in New South Wales may be you $ 40 per visit ( estimation ) , which if aggregated over 100,000 visits has a ‘use ‘ value of $ 4.0 million yearly. For many families nevertheless, they place a value on the province or status of the National Parks in Australia and put a non-use value of $ 45 per twelvemonth. Aggregated over 7,000,000 families in New South Wales, non-use value was about $ 315 million yearly.

Wild Rivers in Northern Queensland

As an illustration, the estimated entire value of continuing the wild rivers in Northern Queensland as expressed by occupants through a study found the followers. Use value of the wild rivers equated to $ 20 and a non-use value equated to $ 100 per family per twelvemonth. The non-use constituent of entire value is about five times the diversion use value constituent.

2: There are a turning figure of economic experts that argue against the commonly held belief that uninterrupted economic growing is good for society. Justify why they think this by briefly explicating 2 illustrations of why they consider economic growing to be unsustainable, and 2 illustrations of alternate economic policies they suggest ( 8 Markss )

Continuous economic growing at current degrees is non possible to prolong without doing serious economic, societal and environmental injury or jobs. Any growing has its restrictions which is presently the job faced by Australia and the universe today.

A turning figure of economic sciences are reasoning this really point which is analysed in the points below.

Population Growth

Harmonizing to informations published by the United Nations, the universe population is expected to exceed 7 billion in 2012, which is expected to increase farther to 9 billion people by 2050. At the same clip our planetary ecological footmark has doubled over the last 40 old ages and the Earth ‘s biological capacity to prolong human life now stands at 30 per centum higher ( theoretically ) its capacity to bring forth our demands. Based on population projections and continued economic growing, 50 % more nutrient ( than is presently produced ) will be required to feed the planetary population by 2050.

Unsustainable Consumption Degrees

Our capitalist system is based on the rule of economic growing – growing that is to a great extent dependent on fossil fuels and unsustainable ingestion patterns. The planetary fiscal crisis was an first-class illustration where authoritiess poured one million millions of public money into neglecting fiscal systems. Previously, many economic experts saw growing as the driver to cut down poorness, feed the universe ‘s turning population and excite investing and technological development. The job with this position of uninterrupted economic growing is how we juggle the Earth ‘s finite resources with the fact that as the economic system grows, the sum of natural resources needed to prolong that activity must turn excessively.

Options to uninterrupted economic growing

To accomplish ‘sustainable economic growing ‘ , new economic policies must be adopted. Global economic policies must be developed to restrict ( or cut down ) the planetary population and displacement of dependance from fossil fuels to renewable energy. These economic policies may include research and development into renewable energy and fuels every bit good as redesigning how people, concern and authorities define wealth. Not by person ‘s ability to devour.

3: Why is GDP considered by many to non be a good step of the wellbeing of a state? How would you set GDP or its discrepancies so to better countervail echt economic wellbeing? ( 8 Markss )

Robert Kennedy stated in his run in 1968 that GDP did ‘not let for the wellness of our kids, the quality of their instruction, or the joy of their drama ‘ . This statement has been around for a long clip.

GDP is considered non to be a good step of the wellbeing of a state due to the gulf between what the information shows and how a family feels. GPD measures income, but non equality, it measures growing, but non devastation, and it ignores values like societal coherence and the environment.

Gross Domestic Product is defined as the amount of all goods and services produced in a state over clip. It is a comprehensive step, covering the production of consumer goods and services, even authorities services, and investing goods.

It would be incorrect to reason that GDP does non capture some well-being steps. It does capture the well-being that consequences from the production of goods and services. Indeed, when statisticians quantify the goods and services produced, they take into account their benefit to the consumer.

GDP is frequently argued nevertheless to be a hapless step because it does non take into history ; environmental debasement, insecurity or inequality issues.

An alternate discrepancy of GDP to mensurate ‘genuine economic wellbeing ‘ is still in development nevertheless many statisticians, are wary of adding excessively many imputations that could stop up weakening this new index. Alternatively, they prefer a suite of indexs.

The best indexs to congratulate GDP in Australia can be found in the Australian Bureau of Statistics ‘ publication, Measuring Australia ‘s Progress, whose indexs cover wellness, instruction, environment, offense and societal fond regard. Equally hard as it might be to compile sustainability indexs, it ‘s every bit ambitious to make steps that describe our societal and emotional lives. In this country, there ‘s a just sum of incredulity from the academic constitution about seting felicity onto a national splashboard of wellbeing.

GDP is a good known and used index because the information included is easy defined and non based on speculation and sentiment which can be a down-fall when developing prosodies around feelings, wellness and well-being.

4: Explain is the difference between weak and strong sustainability ( 4 Markss )

Weak sustainability provinces that man-made and natural capital is substitutable in the long term whilst strong sustainability states the antonym.

Natural capital is classified into non-renewable resources, renewable resources that are harvested, and those that are non used in production. Strong sustainability is defined in footings of changeless environmental quality. Weak sustainability is characterised by an accent on growth-oriented economic development and comparative deficiency of consideration given to the demand for extremist alteration in people ‘s demands on the Earth. Supporters of weak sustainability believe that the environment is simply a aggregation of renewable resources that can be consumed in inordinate measures by the human race.

Weak sustainability is the popular attack to sustainability in the developed universe. It allows for the continuance of current tendencies by puting growing in front of development. Capitalist systems have traditionally linked sustainable development with sustained growing.

Strong sustainability advocates the demand for a more decentralized manner of life based upon greater autonomy, in an attempt to be less destructive towards nature. Strong sustainability does non do allowances for the permutation of human and human-made capital for natural capital. The merchandises and services created by worlds can non replace the natural capital found in the environment.

5: Specify what is meant by the term ‘market failure ‘ ? Supply an illustration of an external cost and an external benefit. ( 5 Markss )

Market failure occurs when freely-functioning markets, runing without authorities intercession, fail to present an efficient or optimum allotment of resources. In market failure economic and societal public assistance may non be maximised which can take to a loss of economic efficiency.

Market failure exists when the competitory result of markets is non efficient from the point of position of the economic system as a whole. This is normally because the benefits that the market confers on persons or houses transporting out a peculiar activity diverge from the benefits to society as a whole. Put another manner, markets fail when the private returns which an person or house receives from transporting out a peculiar action diverge from the returns to society as a whole, ensuing in a sub-optimal sum of it being done. Markets can besides neglect when the person or house does non hold sufficient information to recognize the returns from set abouting an action.

Main causes of market failure:

Outwardnesss doing private and societal costs and/or benefits to diverge.

Imperfect information

Pure public goods and quasi-public goods

Market laterality and maltreatment of monopoly power

Factory stationariness

Equity ( equity ) issues. Markets can bring forth an ‘unacceptable ‘ distribution of income and societal exclusion.

An external cost is a cost that a manufacturer or a consumer imposes on another manufacturer or consumer, outside of any market dealing between them.

Note that external costs are frequently both non-monetary and debatable to quantify for comparing with pecuniary values. A well-known illustration is the fabrication house that dumps pollutants in a river, diminishing H2O quality downstream

An external benefit is a benefit that person additions because of person else ‘s action, outside of any market dealing between them. Immunizations give external benefits. When you get a vaccinum for a certain disease, you make it less likely that you will contract the disease. That is the internal benefit. What you besides do is do is less likely that other people will acquire the disease, because they likely will non catch it from you. That is the external benefit.

6: In your sentiment, are biofuels a sustainable option? Why / non? ( 8 Markss )

In general, biofuels are the lone alternate option available but are by no agencies sustainable. In this transitional stage between the depletion of petroleum oil militias and a renewable energy beginning to power autos, houses and concern, biofuels remain our lone option.

Within the biofuels household exists a figure of options including ethanol – either sugar-cane maize or cellulosic and biodiesel which is largely normally derived from vegetable oil, like canola and soy or animate being fat. The tabular array below lists the benefits and disadvantages of each of biofuels.




Corn Ethanol

Could cut down the America ‘s trust on oil imports and lessening nursery gases.

Production is energy intensive and the monetary value of maize, meat and grain has increased well since its debut as an alternate fuel beginning. Besides, 200kg of maize is required to make full a 95 liter armored combat vehicle with an ethyl alcohol blend which is adequate Calories to feed one individual for a twelvemonth.

Primary usage should be as a nutrient beginning. There is a direct nexus between deforestation and increased demand for maize because of biofuels.

Sugar-Cane Ethanol

Less energy to bring forth than maize and outputs more per acre than maize.

Requires a warm, showery clime to turn.

Primary usage should be as a nutrient beginning. There is a direct nexus between deforestation and increased demand for maize because of biofuels.

Cellulosic Ethanol

Made from wood french friess, non-food harvests, and farm waste.

More expensive than sugar or maize and really energy intensive.

Algae Biofuel

Algae grows rapidly and can bring forth 30 times more energy than other biofuel options.

Turning algae is expensive. The engineering is non yet developed to do extended fuel from algae.


Made from vegetable oil, like canola and soy, and carnal fat. Unfortunately, it requires 90 % more energy to make it than to utilize it. Biodiesel is estimated to cut down nursery gas emanations by 40-80 %

Boosts agflation.

Primary usage should be as a nutrient beginning. There is a direct nexus between deforestation and increased demand for maize because of biofuels.

With the majority of the biofuels being sourced from works based nutrient beginnings, the primary issues remain its affect on planetary nutrient monetary values. Simple economic sciences, when petroleum oil continues to lift and demand additions for alternate fuel options, nutrient is more profitable as a fuel so a nutrient beginning. This is, and will go on to hold a big impact on nutrient monetary values and shortages the universe over.

The other issue with utilizing nutrient for fuel is the ability to provide the measure demanded without destructing woods and ecosystems in the procedure.

7: List 4 ecosystem goods or services and province the economic benefits they provide humanity. ( 4 Markss )

1. Pharmaceuticals

2. Energy



8: Briefly describe 3 ethical quandary faced by determination shapers responsible for making a planetary understanding on clime alteration policy? ( 6 Markss )

chief tripping points – political barriers and dickering french friess – which need to be overcome for states to make a consensus on how to turn to planetary clime alteration.

One of the cardinal issues delegates will confront in their effort to hold on extenuation, is that what some states see as barriers, others perceive as bargaining french friess. While many developed states, including the UK, favour widening extenuation actions to some developing states, many developing states will be utilizing finance and engineering transportation as a trade ledgeman for their consent to the overall trade.

Other barriers delegates will confront in their command to make an understanding on a post-2012 model are issues germinating around the decrease of emanations from deforestation and forest debasement, and how to implement version to climate alteration.

9: Identify 2 supply and 2 demand factors that are predicted to hold an impact on the handiness of nutrient in the hereafter and briefly explain how they will impact planetary nutrient security. ( 8 Markss )

Supply Factors

Production and Supply

As technological betterments came to farms, the proprietors produced more nutrient and transported it to market more efficaciously. However, fast production does non ever intend better monetary values. The commercial market is ferocious, and the cost of keeping farms important. To countervail this, some states like the United States provide farm subsidies in order to stabilise farm production and the nutrient market. Additionally, research continues seeking for ways to better nutrient outputs in the face of an ever-growing population.

Global Heating

When conditions amendss harvests, the cost of that loss increases the monetary values consumers pay. Scientists study the issue of planetary heating for it ‘s inevitable long-run consequence on nutrient economic sciences. Dramatic clime alterations impact outputs, and hence the nutrient supply. To countervail this, farms started puting in technological steps that help minimise loss. This extra cost for ascents besides figures into the concluding monetary value of nutrient.

Demand Factors

Increased Population

With the universe population to transcend 9 billion people by 2050 demand for nutrient will merely go on to lift. Increasing the sum of nutrient available is necessary to feed this awaited population. The Green Revolution of the 1970s and 1980s led to immense additions in end product, mostly due to the cultivation of high-yielding assortments of rice and wheat, the enlargement of land under production and irrigation, greater usage of fertilizers and pesticides and greater handiness of capital. In many states these additions have reached their bound. Significant additions in nutrient production depend on research and development ; bettering agriculture patterns through preparation and the usage of engineering to increase end products from current land without farther loss of productive land.

Economic Development

Increased wealth in states like China, India, and Brazil has elevated nutrient ingestion as consumers in these states starve of their traditional feeding wonts and seek more of a Western-style diet. This elevated demand combined with supply restraints has already driven up the monetary values in trade goods like maize, wheat, java, and cotton and now is taking to hit cookery oils. The universe ‘s appetency for agricultural-based trade goods will go on to turn as emerging economic systems witness increased buying power and populations addition.

10: The conventional agencies of comparing the hereafter to the present in economic science is by the usage of a price reduction rate. Why might a positive price reduction rate struggle with the impression of intergenerational equity? ( 4 Markss )

11: Austere and Garnaut have both argued that the costs of extenuating clime alteration are far less than those associated with the impacts of unmitigated clime alteration. List 3 of the predicted societal and/or environmental impacts of unmitigated clime alteration, and province the direct and/or trickledown consequence these will hold on the economic system. ( 6 Markss )

12: Choose 2 of the clean energy options discussed in category that you think are most appropriate for Australia to implement now, and warrant your determination. ( 6 Markss )

Solar Thermal

With appropriate energy storage, this engineering is ideally suited for base-load power coevals. Bing able to expeditiously concentrate solar thermic energy has the possible to bring forth a practical, green beginning of energy for Australia. Therefore solar thermal is my optimum pick of renewable energy beginnings for Australia. The state has big countries of high solar strength and small rain, where big concentrations of renewable energy power Stationss could be developed.

Solar thermic farms can be linked to the national electricity grid and let Australia to take advantage of a renewable energy beginning: the Sun, which has known forms from twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours and season to season.

Solar thermal farms have peak burden capablenesss, fiting energy end product to energy demand as people rise, use energy and rest along with the rhythms of the Sun. In fiting end product to demand, solar thermal farms have the possible to cut down the demand for coal discharged power Stationss.

Wave energy

This engineering has been good demonstrated overseas, and has shown to be feasible in a figure of different locations in Australia. Wave energy densenesss to the South of Australia are really high, with possible to offer really high burden factors.

Ocean energy is globally available and occurs with a comparatively high grade of predictability. Wave energy is invariably renewed by the Sun and ocean moving ridges can go great distances with minimum loss of energy until they break at a shore. It is estimated that the energy from the universe ‘s moving ridges is equal to twice the sum of electricity that the universe presently consumes.