In the 18th century when Blake lived we see injustice and wretchedness to govern the universe. Peoples and Blake himself were affected by the Gallic Revolution. They saw around them the lawlessness, parliament was non changed, Torahs that were made for stealers and ‘poachers ‘ were excessively barbarous. Panic was everyplace. Citizens of that clip, that were portion of the lowest portion of the society, were really excited by this sort of revolutions because they wanted to be portion of something and Rebel against monarchy and every twenty-four hours repression. Harmonizing to E.P Thomson at that clip people were seeking to believe that they could be liberated from bondage and inhuman treatment non merely in Heaven, as church told them, but besides on Earth. Humanity was angry by monarchy and tried to happen ways to be heard. Blake was one of those people who were against monarchy. Although he was Christian he disagreed with church because of their lip service. In his verse form it is really clear that he is seeking to open everyone ‘s eyes and reflect the inhuman treatment and corruptness of his society, Torahs and church. Thomson besides shows that Blake was ne’er entirely in this battle that chose to give. Other people were back uping him and they were an inspiration to him so he could go on knock the privileged, reject everything that dominant said and rely on his beliefs and interior ideas.
In cruel and cold London of that clip, Blake spent all his life. He wanted to go forth but he could non happen the power because “ the serpentine spirals of ‘the darkening Thames ‘ held him till the terminal ” ( Crehan, 1984, p. 61 ) . Blake was nil like others from the Romantic Movement. He was non free like Shelley and ne’er took the pleasance of a pension for his plants like Wordsworth. Blake, like a self-taught rational, tried to travel off from those classs that in the 18th century were the dominant issues of authorship, like “ order, nature, ground and moral jurisprudence ” . He was against the force per unit area of his society and he was non afraid to demo his choler through the pages of his verse form. He was arguably the first poet in his metropolis that tried to show his feelings through books. His rebellion was ocular and some people tried to go an obstruction in his vision. Fortunately cipher convinced him and he fought until the terminal for his beliefs.
In a reappraisal that T.S Eliot made ( 1920 ) about Blake, he said that Blake was a free spirit. Cipher could state him what to believe neither his parents nor his married woman. As he was turning up he was responsible to himself about what political orientations he would follow. This is really of import in his verse form because there was nil to deflect him or to corrupt his involvements. He followed his bosom and the consequence is extraordinary. Honesty is the chief feature in his books. This was the ground that he was non afraid to assail his society.
In 1789 Songs of Innocence was published. At that clip Gallic Revolution began and dramatically alterations were occurred in France and European history in general. Monarchy collapsed in three old ages. Britain was besides affected by this revolution and people started to demand their rights and were refused to be under monarchy. Furthermore Blake between those five old ages that passed he was composing Songs of Experience. In 1793 he eventually published it and it was so when people started to inquire what he wanted to state in his verse form in contrast with Songs of Innocence. As we see subsequently those books were non opposite but the one filled the other. At first we see innocence through the eyes of kids in countryside and an optimistic vision is reflected. Afterwards experience makes the universe seem more realistic and barbarous but this is the natural truth. Blake when he wrote Songs of Innocence was really infantile and naA?ve. This is revealed at foremost but so after he saw the inhuman treatment of the universe, he wanted to light these darker feelings that he had. And so he did. In those five old ages that passed he grew up and naA?ve verse forms became dark.
Blake named these books “ the two contrary provinces of the human psyche ” . This is non a random rubric but it is allegoric. Inside of it hides a deep significance. It presents to the reader that these vocals are non merely a aggregation of books which talk about childhood and young person. As we are born we carry with us an guiltless universe were everything seems beautiful and cheerful. As we move on in this universe we experience new things that open our heads and wake our senses. A universe is spread in forepart of every homo who is full of fraudulence and is ready to pervert our psyches. Artlessness can non be without experience. These are the two contrary provinces of the human psyche. Furthermore experience can be guiltless excessively. When people grow old and are filled with experience at some point they see the artlessness in life. They try to derive their lost artlessness at the really terminal. It is a privilege if person manages to make this at an earlier point of life.
As he grew old and wrote Songs of Innocence and Experience he was unstylish for his clip and his books were non celebrated and interesting to be read so he did non derive any money. That is why he had to depend on backing from William Hayley, a Sussex poet. As Crehan explains Blake did non like him and he was a weight in his life. To that poet wrote a missive in 1803 and asked him why life was so unjust and that those male childs who are celebrated now, cognize nil about existent art. Besides he said that he was 50 and those male childs were 20 and yet they were more appreciated by the society.
[ aˆ¦ ] how is it that such a dandy can be superior to the studious lover of Art can barely be imagin ‘d. Yet such is slightly similar my destiny & A ; such it is likely to stay. Yet I laugh & amp ; sing. . .
In this missive it is obvious that Blake was unhappy by his society. Harmonizing to Crehan he had to confront everyone with a mask on his face because he depended on them since he could non populate merely from the net incomes of the occupation that he had in the print store. His feelings have something in common with “ The chimney sweeper ” in Songs of Experience:
And because I am happy & A ; dance & A ; sing,
They think they have done me no hurt. . .
Here it is the same sorrow that he expresses in the missive. He tried to demo his existent feelings and ideas throw this vocal. As we move in the nucleus of his book it is ever easy to see and understand how he truly wanted to emancipate himself from the inhuman treatment and lip service of his society.
In the debut of Songs of Innocence the image that he wants the reader to capture it is successful. Except from his Hagiographas there are illustrations in his verse forms that carry the significance off every vocal. In Songs of Innocence a rural universe is described and a happy environment seems to be spread in the reader ‘s bosom. In that first plate a shepherd with his pipe walks through the wood and a kid on a cloud tells him to sing a vocal. That kid is the spirit of Innocence that is traveling to be continued in the other vocals. After the piper started singing some vocals the small kid told him to compose them down so that every kid could bask them.
Piper sit thee down and compose
In a book that all may read-
So he vanish ‘d from my sight,
And I pluck ‘d a hollow reed.
Finally the piper wrote down his vocals so every kid in the universe could read them and flux in that cloud of artlessness.
And I made a rural pen,
And I stain ‘d the H2O clear,
And I wrote my happy vocals,
Every kid may rejoice to hear.
This is the debut of these vocals and we see a ‘piper ‘ who is ready to blossom the universe of artlessness in forepart of kids ‘s eyes. Now in this period of clip in Blake ‘s head was full of felicity and his character was self-generated as Ackroyd explains.
Afterwards in Songs of Experience a darker side of his society is presented. It is really clear that Songs of Innocence are followed by this darker hint of Songs of Experience to do clear to the reader that life has these two sides. From the really get downing Blake replaces the piper who is a good shepherd to a bard. A bard was in mediaeval British civilization a professional poet who was praising his frequenter ‘s household and activities as English history defines. By get downing the verse form in this manner, shows that what is traveling to follow in the other verse forms it is traveling to be repressed feelings and images like this bard ; he is oppressed by his frequenter and Blake by his society. Already a darker coloring material starts to be distributing from these first words. This bard is seeking to do Earth, which is the lost psyche, to understand that she is vanished in a universe where society likely put her. She has to wake up and look around her and likely recover the hope that she used to hold in her psyche.
O Earth O Earth return!
Arise from out the bedewed grass ;
Night is worn.
And the forenoon
Rises from the slumbrous mass
Blake attempts strongly to demo how state of affairs truly was in his clip, about church and political occurrences. Peoples were enduring and in-between category was merely watching them easy deceasing without making anything. As every author who lived in difficult times, industrialisation of England ( Dickens, Gaskell etc. ) , he tried to dismay everyone around him that society needed to be changed so that the quality of their life would be better. First we see this disapprobation of his society in one vocal of “ Songs of Experience ” which is “ The Chimney Sweeper ” . In this vocal he flashes straight the visible radiations to the job of kids labour. Here he describes a kid speaking about how his parents left him when he was truly immature ( “ Crying weep, weep, in the notes of suffering ) to travel and work as a chimney sweeper. Afterwards he blames Church, God and King because his parents idolize them more alternatively of taking attention of him. They besides think that their kid is happy and lives in a ‘Heaven ‘ on Earth, but they truly do non cognize that their kid is populating in a ‘Hell ‘ that they put him into.
And because I am happy, & A ; dance & A ; sing,
They think they have done me no hurt:
And are gone to praise God & A ; his Priests & A ; King
Who make up a Eden of our wretchedness.
In this overwhelming vocal, Blake has a batch of rage about the dominant power of his society who was the Church. It is apparent that Blake had a truly serious issue about church and he was perfectly right that he felt like that because of the undermentioned grounds. As Edman explains in his book, one time a twelvemonth, on May Day, these kids do dance and sing. This happens when ‘streets of London are given to the expanses and dairymaids to execute for alms in monstrous symmetricalness. ‘ ( Edman, 1977, p. 275 ) . From this remark we extract the fact that these kids are unhappy and they are enduring. These people and their church choose to disregard the existent hurting and how they live in atrocious topographic points cold and hungry, because of that one twenty-four hours that they seem to be happy.
Furthermore Blake wanted to reprobate the pent-up gender that many people had. This is shown in the “ Nurses Song ” of “ Songs of Experience ” . At first in “ Songs of Innocence ” , “ Nurse ‘s Song ” is a verse form which talks about the love of a nurse towards the kids and how she is happy watching them playing on the ‘green ‘ . She has a bosom which is loving and caring. When the kids tell her to remain longer outside because they want to play she leaves them and she feels good because she knows that they are merely kids and this is what makes them happy.
When the voices of kids are heard on the green
And laughing is heard on the hill,
My bosom is at remainder within my chest
And everything else is still.
Harmonizing to Gardner this has nil to make with his ain childhood. Afterwards this vocal is transformed into a dark shadow hanging over the kids who are ‘whispering ‘ in the ‘dale ‘ . The nurse in the 2nd verse form in “ Songs of Experience ” is full of green-eyed monster and concealed choler. As Sir Geoffrey Keynes explains, she is taking attention of kids who are non immature any longer but they are striplings and they are watchful when it comes to sex and that is why they are whispering alternatively of playing. The nurse remembers with sorrow and repent her immature age and how she wasted her clip playing without holding existent sex experiences. Furthermore her colour alterations and it becomes ‘green ‘ and ‘pale ‘ which is the colour of green-eyed monster and illness of non holding what she wants and particularly because she knows that she will ne’er hold the kids ‘s experiences. This is a lampoon of the last ‘Nurse ‘s vocal ‘ . It is an reply to it when it comes to the universe of experience. Therefore with this vocal condemns his society because he shows the existent side of people, who are trapped and they can non show their existent feelings.
When the voices of kids are heard on the green
And rustles are in the dale:
The yearss of my young person rise fresh in my head,
My face turns green and picket.
The existent damnation of his society and what he truly thinks about the political occurrences of his clip is ocular in one of the verse forms in “ Songs of Experience ” which is “ London ” . In this verse form he sets out what the existent facts truly look like in the streets of corrupted London at that clip. The illustrated image for this verse form shows a small male child taking an old adult male through London ‘s streets. Every word in this verse form hurts everyone who reds it:
I wander thro ‘ each charter ‘d street,
Near where the charter ‘d Thames does flux,
And grade in every face I meet
Marks of failing, Markss of suffering.
In every call of every Man,
In every Infant ‘s call of fright,
In every voice, in every prohibition,
The mind-forg ‘d cuff I hear.
This is evidently a verse form which marks every head with the hurting and despair that Blake feels. Here the sense of hear is really strong. Crehan makes clear that ‘what we see we can take non to see, but what we hear is less easy shut out ‘ ( Crehan, 1984, p. 73 ) . This statement is wholly true and every individual in this life chooses non to see the bad side of some state of affairss. Here Blake is inquiring through the cold streets of London and put down whatever he hears and sees. The capital letters that he uses to depict a individual like ‘Man ‘ is to universalise this image. When he does this, every individual can be in that state of affairs which he describes. In the first stanza he says that streets and Thames are chartered which he means, harmonizing to Edman, that charters of that clip were rip offing people and they were destructing London ‘s thriving. Based on this, Blake sees that everything is chartered because everything is corrupted by the value of money. Next the grade in every face he sees, declares how every individual has the grade of trading money for goods. Everything is for sale and whatever he sees is corrupted. At the terminal Blake wants to wake people up because in the hereafter, which is now, from every small thing to every human being, there will be a award. Unfortunately nil changed in our present. Everything is corrupted and ready to be bought.
In the 3rd and 4th stanza of “ London ” something else is presented. Here the existent disapprobation of Church is clear. As the reader uninterrupted to read the verse form sees how Church truly was at that clip. A “ black’ning ” edifice and lip service at its extremum, as shown here:
How the Chimney-sweeper ‘s call
Every black’ning church appalls ;
And the hapless soldier ‘s suspiration
Runs in blood down Palace walls.
But most thro-midnight streets I hear
How the vernal Harlot ‘s expletive
Blasts the new born Infant ‘s tear,
And blights with pestilences the Marriage hearse.
In the 3rd stanza, the chimney sweeper once more is unhappy and every chimney that he cleans, alternatively of being clean it is still black. This shows that people who live under this chimney are covered by something more powerful which keeps them black because of their lip service. This stanza ‘makes the target-here, the guilty clergy ‘s hypocritical concern-concretely seeable ( Crehan, 1984, p. 74 ) . Blake sets the church precisely where it should be ; in the extremum of lip service ‘s heap. Another thing that is described here is about the soldier who sighs because he has to travel to a war to contend the Republican France alternatively of combating the existent enemy which is their male monarch, archbishop and parliament who, from their safe castles, advocate those guiltless and harmless work forces to travel and contend the incorrect enemy. Finally the ‘Harlot ‘s expletive ‘ is poxs, which was the chief pestilence of that clip, because of harlotry. Syphilis is a death which blinds new born babes on the manner out from their female parent ‘s uterus. Besides this is symbolic for ‘Marriage hearse ‘ because this expletive is what makes matrimony dead. Again here the church is condemned because matrimony is no longer blessed or monogamous. It is full of prevarications and fabrications. Therefore Blake attempts to anticipate the hereafter and warn people that everything will be flattened.
From all these verse forms although dark images are everyplace, there is something unexpected in ‘Songs of Experience ‘ . A concealed hope visible radiations in some verse forms and one of them is ‘The Voice of the Ancient Bard ‘ . In this last verse form of ‘Songs of Experience ‘ a fire is still firing after the manner until here. Woes, foolish behaviours and clouds that have been following us by here, now the ‘Ancient Bard ‘ is naming every bad thing to travel off.
Young person of delight semen hither,
And see the gap forenoon,
Image of truth new born,
Doubt is fled & amp ; clouds of ground,
Dark disputes & A ; disingenuous tease.
Folly is an eternal labyrinth.
Tangled roots perplex her ways,
How many have fallen at that place!
They stable all dark over castanetss of the dead:
And experience they know non what by attention:
And wish to take others when they should be lead.
Blake wants to give hope to the coevals which follows by conveying back the bard from the debut to assemble young person around him and explicate the undermentioned thing. In life there is darkness, wretchedness, sufferings and differences but one twenty-four hours all these are traveling to disappear from forenoon ‘s Sun. This Sun will be the Sun of justness. Though ‘folly is an eternal labyrinth ‘ at the terminal people are traveling to acquire out of there and see things in a more optimistic and cagey manner. Besides the bard tries to advice young person that jobs will ever be in our manner and merely like we learned from our ascendants, they have to steer the new coevals whenever they need to. Therefore this last hope is the new coevals, which Blake expects to manage state of affairss better and be brighter from people of his clip.
Through this walk within Blake ‘s vocals, the reader becomes wiser. In the beginning in ‘Songs of Innocence our head fills with colourful images and happy sounds of rural life. Children are running and playing in every hill and felicity is in every field. Afterwards in ‘Songs of Experience ‘ a dark shadow is hanging over our caput. Injustice, hurting, wretchedness and unhappiness is marked in every face merely like it was on Blake ‘s face. He wanted to wake people up because he does non mention merely in his society but he wants to talk to the reader who is a portion of the hereafter. The fear in his psyche was excessively black and this is why he felt that he should warn us. After all, the emphasized disapprobation of his society was clear, but besides he condemns every society which is structured like his. So the message that we get from him is to seek to forestall their error and make a universe better for everyone. Unfortunately every error of every society is repeated and there is nil to make about it ; this is how history works. At least Blake tried and his verse form will be historical for every society to read.
“ No other poet now speaks so straight to our coevals about religious power and personal autonomy, the corruptness of war and the vision of peace. ” ( Gardner, 1968, p.5 )